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October, 2014 Current Topics

 

Source

 

 

 

 

US-India Relations After the Modi Visit, October 2014. Rajesh Rajagopalan, Professor of International Politics at Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, explains that "there has been a refreshing change on the Indian side in being willing to openly declare India's key strategic interests."

 

EWC

What Place for the Asia-Pacific in French Global Strategy? October 2014. Arnaud Leveau, Research Fellow at the ASEAN Studies Center (ASC) at Chulalongkorn University in Thailand, explains that "it is in the French interest to support and encourage the stabilizing role of the United States in the Asia Pacific, especially to guarantee freedom of navigation at sea and of overflight."

 

EWC

Feeling Disconnected: Exploring the Relationship between Different Forms of Social Capital and Civic Engagement in Japan, Published 2014. This paper analyzes the role of social connectedness in motivating citizens to take an active interest in society and to engage in communal activities. Japan is used as an example of a society which has been diagnosed with a weakening of social bonds, as well as with an increase in social inequality and precarity in recent years...

 

DIJ

Gender and Political Participation in Post-3/11 Japan, Published 2014. In the aftermath of the triple disaster of March 11, 2011, concerned parents throughout Japan formed over 300 social movement organizations nationwide for the protection of children from radiation. Especially mothers have become active within that organizational network. For many of them, it is their first time to become politically active...

 

DIJ

India: Redesigning Fiscal Federalism after the Global Financial Crisis, 2014. Partly as a result of the Fiscal Responsibility Act (passed in 2003) the gross fiscal deficits of both central and state governments were in good order. Indeed, both central and state governments were running primary surpluses in 2006-07 and 2007-08. Partly as result of the stimulus enacted to counter the effects of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) both central and state government have been running primary deficits since 2008-09 as a result of which gross fiscal deficits and debt have risen significantly...

 

ASARC

Caught between Theory and Practice: Government, Market, and Regulatory Failure in Electricity Sector Reforms, 2014. The world-wide electricity sector reforms of the early 1990s have revealed the complexities of introducing market driven reforms and making them work in network and infrastructure industries. This paper reflects on the experience to date with the process and outcomes of market-based electricity reforms in less-developed, transition and developed economies...

 

ASARC

Financing Post-2015 Development Challenges: Who are the Front-runners in the Asia and Pacific Region? October 2014. Adequate fiscal flexibility is a prerequisite for meeting the post-2015 development challenges. This paper proposes a composite fiscal flexibility index. Based on several important fiscal parameters, the index will identify countries in the Asia and Pacific region that are well-poised to meet the enhanced development financing requirements...

 

ADB

Industrialization and Global Value Chain Participation: An Examination of Constraints Faced by the Private Sector in Nepal, October 2014. This paper examines the constraints faced by Nepal, a least developed landlocked country, in participating in regional and global value chains. It analyzes key economic data, reviews recent and relevant publications, and draws on interviews with policy makers and stakeholders. The paper identifies behind-and beyond-the-border factors that reduce competitiveness and the ability of the private sector to participate and benefit from regional and global value chains. It also conducted case studies with two leading firms in Nepal...

 

ADB

New Evidence on the Gender Wage Gap in Indonesia, September 2014. Even though Indonesia has been experiencing impressive economic growth, urbanization could affect income inequality among workers. Using the 2010 National Labor Force Survey (Sakernas) in Indonesia, this paper examines how monthly wages are distributed between male and female workers. Empirical results indicate that urbanization tends to benefit male workers more favorably than female workers. It also shows that the gender wage gap in Indonesia is mainly due to gender discrimination. Thus, the paper proposes the implementation of laws to equalize opportunities and wages among workers, especially in the public sector...

 

ADB

Connecting South and Southeast Asia: Implementation Challenges and Coordination Arrangements, September 2014. With closer regional integration there is increasing interest within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and on the part of ASEAN's dialogue partners in the potential gains of closer connections between Southeast Asia and South Asia. The strategic positions of India, Myanmar, and Thailand provide the basis and scope for implementing multi-modal connectivity projects, for building upon and improving existing infrastructure and processes for cross-border connectivity in trade...

 

ADB

Research on Green Supply Chain Management of Yujiapu Financial District, September 2014. The publication looks into the green supply chain management in Yujiapu Financial District, APEC’s first Low-Carbon Model Town.

 

APEC

Cargo Preference and Restrictions Applying to Specific Trades, September 2014. This report looks into past and existing cargo preference along with specific trade policies within the APEC member economies. It also aims to analyze their implementation and policy effect.

 

APEC

APEC's Ease of Doing Business - Interim Assessment 2009-2013, September 2014. This report analyzes the accumulated progress by the APEC region during the period 2009-2013. The interim assessment confirms that APEC has been making continuous overall progress in the EoDB initiative since its inception. During the period 2009-2013, APEC’s combined improvement across the five EoDB priority areas was equal to 11.3 percent, but progress remained below the 2013 pro rata benchmark of 15 percent improvement. APEC will need to intensify its efforts to get closer to the 2015 target.

 

APEC

Study on the Reduction of Energy Consumption and Prevention of Harmful Exhaust Emissions from International Shipping in the APEC Region, August 2014. This project aims to achieve green growth and promote the development of clean and efficient transportation system in the APEC region by providing solutions to member economies for optimizing fuel consumption, using clean energy and reducing harmful exhaust emissions from ships while maintaining the sound and sustainable development of shipping.

 

APEC

APEC Marine Sustainable Development Report, August 2014. The report is the first APEC report on marine sustainable development, and aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current status of marine sustainable development in APEC as well as review the progress made so far, and the related challenges.

 

APEC

Hong Kong: High Frequency Macroeconomic Forecasts Current Quarter Model: 2014Q4, October 2014. According to its High Frequency Macroeconomic Forecast, real GDP in 14Q3 is estimated to grow by 2.4% when compared with the same period last year. This is a downward revision from the previous forecast release of 3.7%. This revision mainly reflects the weaker-then-expected external demand for exports of services and the weaker-than-expected local demand. In 14Q4, real GDP growth is forecast to be 2.1% when compared with the same period last year...

 

HKU

Joko Widodo's Indonesia: Possible Future Paths, September 2014. This paper looks at the possible paths for policy and development in Indonesia under the leadership of the seventh president of Indonesia, Joko Widodo, who will take office in Jakarta on 20 October. The first part is a stocktake of the challenges that lie ahead. The stocktake assesses the state of play in five areas: the political system; economic challenges; government and administration; social issues; and foreign affairs...

 

ASPI

The Submarine Choice: Perspectives on Australia's Most Complex Defence Project, September 2014. In April this year ASPI staged a conference called The Submarine Choice. In this book you’ll find a summary of each of the talks that were given at the conference, and they contain a range of perspectives. As well, we’ve included some analytic insights from ASPI. Mark Thomson and Andrew Davies write on the complex suite of industrial options...

 

ASPI

Global Value Chains, Border Management and Australian Trade, September 2014. In this Lowy Institute Analysis, Nicholas Humphries examines how Australian Customs can increase Australia’s trade competitiveness at a time when goods and services are increasingly produced across borders in so- called ‘global value chains’ (GVC). This Analysis was written as a part of the Australian Customs and Border Protection Services Fellowship at the Lowy Institute...

 

Lowy

China's Shifting Perceptions of India: The Context of Xi Jinping's Visit to India, October 2014. Selina Ho, Senior Research Fellow at the Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, explains that "The growing strategic proximity between China and India increases the potential for conflict but also for cooperation."

 

EWC

ISIL, a Growing Threat in Indonesia? September 2014. Gwenael Njoto-Feillard, Visiting Fellow at the Institute of South-East Asian Studies (ISEAS) in Singapore, explains that "Stronger cooperation between the state and all elements of Islamic civil society is needed to reinforce the relative resilience of Indonesian Islam to the growth of radicalism."

 

EWC

Asian Development Outlook 2014 UPDATE (Highlights, Full Report):  Asia in Global Value Chains  

ADB

Asia Bond Monitor, September 2014. Emerging East Asian local currency (LCY) bond markets continued to perform well as global financial conditions have remained relatively benign thus far in 2014. The region, however, should prepare for possibly tighter liquidity as United States (US) quantitative easing is expected to end in October. More expansionary monetary actions from the eurozone and Japan could offset some of the impact on liquidity conditions caused by the end of US quantitative easing...

 

ADB

Asian Development Review, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2014 (Full Report):   ADB

Connecting South Asia and Southeast Asia: A Bangladesh Country Study, September 2014. Economic integration is being inhibited by the poor state of transport connectivity between Bangladesh, and South Asia and Southeast Asia. This study reviews connectivity initiatives of Bangladesh and the two neighboring regions and proposes ways to deepen regional and interregional connectivity. Since the early 1990s, as a consequence of trade-led growth strategy, South Asia and Southeast Asia have emerged as important economic partners of Bangladesh both in terms of export destination and import sourcing...

 

ADB

Capital Flows during Quantitative Easing and Aftermath: Experiences of Asian Countries, September 2014. The United States quantitative easing (QE) triggered massive expansions of capital flow into developing Asia, raising concerns about financial instability consequences. The paper examines the effect of QE on capital flows and scrutinizes factors that influence the effect of QE tapering on financial instability. The findings suggest that QE did lead to large capital inflows which, with credit expansion, magnified the effect of the QE tapering announcement on the region’s financial instability. While there is no evidence that macroprudential policies directly reduced the effect of QE tapering, they can nevertheless be useful preemptive measures.

 

ADB

Energy Security in Asia: Prospects for Regional Cooperation, September 2014. This paper illustrates the consequences of the search for energy security and its relationship to regional trade and cooperation. It asserts three main ways regional cooperation can strengthen national policies on energy security: (i) information and knowledge sharing to create a sound evidence base for policies, (ii) agreement on common policies, and (iii) subregional development of electricity and gas markets. In the long term, the biggest impact of regional cooperation on national energy security will be creating regional networks; developing subregional markets will likely be the most effective approach.

 

ADB

Energy Efficiency Improvements in Asia: Macroeconomic Impacts, September 2014. The paper finds that energy efficiency policies in Asia are expected to have a positive impact on private consumption, government expenditures, and investment. Such policies would also lead to a significant rise in trade within the region while reducing trade outside. Without measures to improve efficiency, emissions would increase significantly in most countries studied.

 

ADB

Power Sector in Developing Asia: Current Status and Policy Issues, September 2014. The paper examines the current status and future prospects of the electricity sectors and key policy issues in the People’s Republic of China (PRC), India, Japan, and the Republic of Korea. In the PRC, the fuel mix and energy efficiency are key concerns, while raising efficiency of power plants and reducing transmission losses are main issues in India. In Japan, amid reductions in nuclear output, there are aims to diversify generation portfolio by expanding renewables. In the Republic of Korea, average electricity prices are below production costs, leading to overconsumption.

 

ADB

Diversification of Energy Supply: Prospects for Emerging Energy Sources, August 2014. This paper examines the status, future prospects, environmental implications, investment and infrastructure requirements, and risks of alternative energy sources such as solar resource, wind power, and unconventional gas. Solar resource is considered excellent across developing Asia, while the wind resource is strong in several economies. While shale gas is a fast-emerging unconventional gas, it may develop slowly in the region due to various limitations, including challenging geological conditions, lack of geological data, and dense populations in prospective areas.

 

ADB

Innovative Asia: Advancing the Knowledge-Based Economy - The Next Policy Agenda, Published 2014. This study outlines policy actions required in developing countries of Asia to advance as knowledge-based economies. The study uses the four pillars of the Knowledge Economy Index to benchmark the performance of developing economies in Asia against advanced economies of the world. It analyzes opportunities by which Asia’s middle and low income countries can tap new technology trends to move up global value chains and towards high-income levels.

 

ADB

Innovative Asia: Advancing the Knowledge-Based Economy - Country Case Studies for the People's Republic of China, India, Indonesia, and Kazakhstan. This report presents the case studies of the People’s Republic of China, India, Indonesia and Kazakhstan in their knowledge-based economy approaches. It identifies a range of policies and initiatives that these economies need to consider to strengthen innovation-led growth and make a transition from middle-income to high-income levels.

 

ADB

Urban Metabolism of Six Asian Cities, Published 2014. The urban metabolism framework maps the activities of cities from their consumption of materials, the different activities associated with those processes, and the wastes produced. Information generated provides a diagnostic tool for identifying high waste generating or inefficient activities and identifying potential points of policy intervention. A streamlined urban metabolism approach based on material flow analyses was applied to six Asian cities—Bangalore, Bangkok, Ho Chi Minh City, Manila, Seoul and Shanghai...

 

ADB

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September, 2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Pacific's Connectivity and Its Trade Implications, September 2014. In this paper we study the importance of transport connectivity for Pacific economies when participating in the world economy. The paper first describes the evolution of trade flows of the Pacific economies over the last decade, in terms of both trade in goods and services. It then introduces two new datasets...

 

ADB

A Connectivity-Driven Development Strategy for Nepal: From a Landlocked to a Land-Linked State, September 2014. Nepal's lackluster economic performance during the post-conflict period (that is, after November 2006) has been driven by remittances from the export of labor services and the improved performance of the agricultural sector, which is still very much weather dependent. The authors make the case for a connectivity-driven development strategy for the country...

 

ADB

Response of Stock Markets to Monetary Policy: An Asian Stock Market Perspective, September 2014. Our result points to the fact that stock prices increase persistently in response to an exogenous easing monetary policy. Variance deposition results show that, after 10 periods, the forecast error variance of beyond 53% of the Tehran Stock Exchange Price Index (TEPIX) can be explained by exogenous shocks to the US dollar–Iranian rial exchange rate, while this ratio for exogenous shocks to Iranian real gross domestic product was only 17%. We argue that such evidence can be accounted for by an endogenous response of the stock prices to the monetary policy shocks.

 

ADB

Financial Monitoring in the New ASEAN-5 Countries, May 2014. This paper examines the issues surrounding the implementation of global regulatory reforms— spearheaded by the G20 and mainly under the aegis of the Financial Stability Board (FSB)—in Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Myanmar, and Viet Nam (BCLMV). These countries are the five newest members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)...

 

ADB

Equity Home Bias, Financial Integration, and Regulatory Reforms: Implications for Emerging Asia, May 2014. With increasing financial integration and improving regulatory quality, we expect equity home bias to decline. Drawing on the supportive evidence for such trends in advanced economies, this paper investigates the links between financial integration and regulatory quality; and equity home bias in emerging Asia...

 

ADB

Study of Non-Notified Trade Agreements to the World Trade Organization: The Case of Asia and the Pacific Region, May 2014. “Cast light and evil will go away.” This is the basic idea of the transparency exercise of regional trade agreements (RTAs) at the World Trade Organization (WTO). Information sharing on RTAs is critically important because monitoring is impossible without it. In order for us to see not only good but also evil RTAs, a light called “notification requirement” should reach them. In reality, however, it is too optimistic to assume that the light reaches all RTAs...

 

ADB

The Nexus between Antidumping Petitions and Exports during the Global Financial Crisis: Evidence on the People's Republic of China, May 2014. This paper quantifies how the People’s Republic of China’s (PRC) export volume to its major trading partners during the global financial crisis affects the antidumping (AD) petitions filed by the trading partners against the PRC. Focusing on the AD petitions at the Harmonized System (HS) Code 8-digit level and the PRC’s exports at the HS 2-digit level, we construct three instrument variables at the same HS level for export volume...

 

ADB

Analysis of Informal Obstacles to Cross-Border Economic Activity in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, May 2014. The barriers to trade in developing countries constitute one of the major obstacles to economic development and growth. This study aims at addressing the issues surrounding the prevalence of informal trade barriers in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. While it appears to be logical that the strongest economies of Central Asia should increase trade volume with neighboring countries, in reality the potential for intensifying cross-border trade is barely being realized...

 

ADB

The Investment Version of the Asian Noodle Bowl: The Proliferation of International Investment Agreements, April 2014. This paper aims to provide a detailed reading of recent advances in Asian investment rule-making and a finer appreciation of how rules in Asian IIAs have evolved in response to stimuli. While existing studies mainly deal with the interpretation and application of the IIAs in which the rules are given, this study deals in turn with the development of rules, including investment protection...

 

ADB

Maximizing Energy Efficiency of Supply Chain Connectivity Through Improving Rail-waterway Intermodal Container Transport (RWICT) in APEC Economies, September 2014. The analysis comprises of four sections: section one deals with the current status and trend of RWICT development in the Asia-Pacific region; section two compares RWICT with other transport modes, in the form of rail vs sea and rail vs road, mainly from the perspective of energy consumption; section three proposes suggestions in relation to China’s RWICT and some general recommendations; and section four is equivalent to a mini instruction manual, providing key information for the reference of various parties who intend to get involved in RWICT via the New Eurasia Land Bridge.

 

APEC

Independent Assessment of the APEC Mining Task Force, August 2014. The APEC Mining Task Force (MTF; ‘the group’) was established in 2007 following the 3rd Minister’s Responsible for Mining (MRM3) meeting held in Perth, Australia. The MTF has previously been reviewed through an independent assessment report in August 2011. This independent assessment examines the operations and outputs of the MTF since the 2011 review and makes recommendations to assist with enhancing the capacity and effectiveness of the group.

 

APEC

Project Summary Report - APEC Conference on Facilitating Solar Supply Chain, August 2014. On July 31st and August 1st, 2014, the APEC Conference on Facilitating the Solar Supply Chain, initiated by Viet Nam and co-sponsored by China and the United States, was held in Ha Noi, Viet Nam. The Conference sought to update information on trends in the sourcing of inputs to solar-energy projects and possible changes that could affect supply chains in the future. It also aimed at creating a platform for APEC member economies to discuss current supply-chain management procedures and networks in the solar industry, as well as discussing opportunities and challenges in the solar equipment industry, with possible recommendations to tackle such challenges.

 

APEC

Financing APEC SME Innovation Workshop: Identifying Government Policies that Promote Venture Capital In-vestment in APEC Economies, August 2014. This report provides an overview and summary of the Financing APEC SME Innovation Workshop held between the 18th – 19th of June 2014 at the Sofitel Sukhumvit Hotel, Bangkok by the Office of Small and Medium Enterprises Promotion (OSMEP), on behalf of the APEC SME Working Group. The main objective of the two day workshop is to devise a set of policy recommendations to be enacted APEC-wide for both developed and developing member economies to encourage both domestic and cross-border venture capitalist investment, with a focus on encouraging venture capital market growth in latecomer economies.

 

APEC

Promoting Regional Education Services Integration: APEC University Associations Cross-Border Education Cooperation Workshop - Workshop Report, June 2014. This report has been prepared to summarise discussions at the APEC University Associations Cross-Border Education Cooperation Workshop. The workshop was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia between 20 and 22 May 2014 and was attended by delegates from Australia; Canada; Hong Kong, China; Indonesia; Japan; Korea; Malaysia; Papua New Guinea; The Philippines; Singapore; Thailand; Viet Nam; and the United States.

 

APEC

Institute of Southeast Asian Studies - Trends in Southeast Asia 2014
#01: China's Economic Engagement With Southeast Asia: Malaysia
#02: The Political Economy of RCEP & TPP Agreements: An ASEAN
        Perspective
#03: New Chinese Migration and Capital in Cambodia
#04: Reforms will Determine Degree of Vietnam's Dependence on
       China

 

ISEAS

To Choose or Not to Choose: How to Deal with China's Growing Power and Influence, August 2014. This paper collects 10 items published on the ASPI blog The Strategist by eight authors on one of the most important public policy issues of this decade and beyond: how to deal with China’s growing power and influence. The hope is that this debate will start to identify points of shared thinking and expose the areas where further work is needed to improve the quality of policy outcomes. ASPI will continue to publish on the topic. There is no more important subject for the future of Australia and for a stable Asia–Pacific.

 

ASPI

Strategy and Its Discontents: The Place of Strategy in National Policymaking, July 2014. One of the liveliest debates to have taken place on ASPI’s blog, The Strategist, concerned the place of strategy in Canberra’s policymaking community. It seems that there’s little consensus around what strategy’s core business should be, let alone who should practice it and whether indeed enough strategy is being done by DFAT, Defence or other parts of government. The 11 short pieces printed here by eight authors with quite diverse perspectives span a broad range of views about the definition, role, purpose and health of strategic policymaking. There’s no more important debate in public policy than on the place of strategy in meeting complex national challenges. This paper hopefully will encourage a more structured debate about strategy’s place at the heart of national policymaking.

 

ASPI

Violence against Women in PNG: How Men Are Getting Away with Murder, August 2014. The women of Papua New Guinea (PNG) endure some of the most extreme levels of violence in the world. They continue to be attacked with impunity despite their government’s promises of justice. The situation has been described as a humanitarian disaster yet still does not receive the broader public attention it deserves, inside or outside PNG. It is also a significant obstacle to PNG’s development and prosperity...

 

Lowy

Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2014 (Highlights, Special Supplement and Full Report):
  • Part I: Special Chapter: Poverty in Asia: A Deeper Look
  • Part II: Millennium Development Goals
  • Part III: Regional Trends and Tables

Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2014 covers 48 economies: Afghanistan, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China, Cook Islands, Fiji Islands, Georgia, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, Republic of Korea, Kyrgyz Republic, Lao, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nauru, Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Taipei, Tajikistan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, and Viet Nam.

 

ADB

Assessing the Costs of Climate Change and Adaptation in South Asia, Published 2014. According to the report's findings the total climate change cost in South Asia will increase over time and will be prohibitively high in the long term. Without global deviation from a fossil-fuel-intensive path, South Asia could lose an equivalent 1.8% of its annual gross domestic product (GDP) by 2050, which will progressively increase to 8.8% by 2100. The model suggests that the Maldives will be hardest hit in GDP loss, while Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka are projected to face 2.0%, 1.4%, 1.8%, 2.2%, and 1.2%, respectively, loss of annual GDP by 2050...

 

ADB

ASEAN 2030: Toward a Borderless Economic Community, Published 2014. This book investigates long-term development issues for members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). It finds that with a proper policy mix including domestic structural reforms and bold initiatives for regional integration, by 2030 ASEAN has the potential to reach the average quality of life enjoyed today in advanced economies and fulfill its aspirations to become a resilient, inclusive, competitive, and harmonious (RICH) region...

 

ADB

From Global Factory to Global Mall: East Asia's Changing Trade Composition, August 2014. This paper studies how East Asia's trade composition and orientation have changed over the past decade and analyzes the implications for the region and beyond. Over the last 2 decades we have witnessed the emergence of regional and global supply chains, in which production is divided into production stages or tasks across the most competitive locations. East Asia has been the most successful region in the world in building up or joining regional and global supply chains and has been described as "Factory Asia" (Baldwin 2008)...

 

ADB

Trade Policy and Growth in Asia, August 2014. This paper examines the changing relationship between trade policy, production networks, and economic growth in Asia. It traces East Asia's rise to the coveted "Factory Asia" league with rapid growth over several decades through trade policy anchored on outward-oriented industrialization strategies, including a voluntary liberalization approach under the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and a multilateral approach under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)/World Trade Organization (WTO) system...

 

ADB

Economic Implications of Deeper South Asian - Southeast Asian Integration: A CGE Approach, August 2014. South and Southeast Asian economic integration via increased trade flows has been increasing significantly over the past 2 decades, but the level of trade continues to be relatively low. This underperformance has been due to both policy-related variables—relatively high tariff and non-tariff barriers—and high trade costs due to inefficient "hard" and "soft" infrastructure (costly transport links and problems related to trade facilitation). The goal of this study is to estimate the potential gains from South Asian–Southeast Asian economic integration using an advanced computable general equilibrium (CGE) model...

 

ADB

Measuring Value Added in the People's Republic of China's Exports: A Direct Approach, August 2014. We apply a direct approach to estimate domestic value added embedded in the People's Republic of China's (PRC) exports. The estimates suggest that the domestic value added of processing exports and processing high-tech exports gradually increased from 30% and 25%, to 44% and 45%, respectively, between 1997 and 2012. On the other hand, the domestic content of processing exports with supplied materials fell to 14% from the peak of 35%...

 

ADB

Three Arrows of "Abenomics" and the Structural Reform of Japan: Inflation Targeting Policy of the Central Bank, Fiscal Consolidation, and Growth Strategy, August 2014. "Abenomics" refers to the economic policies advocated by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe who became prime minister of Japan for a second time when his party, the Liberal Democratic Party, won an overwhelming majority at the general election in December 2012. Abenomics has "three arrows": (i) aggressive monetary policy, (ii) fiscal consolidation, and (iii) growth strategy...

 

ADB

Three Cheers for Abe's High-Tech CLT Wooden Arrow: The Future of Japanese Construction, August 2014. The August 7 Bloomberg article, “Japanese Women Armed With Chainsaws Head to the Hills Under Abe's Plan”, legitimately lauds this Abe initiative that promotes women and Japanese forestry, especially high-tech and environmentally friendly forestry. The article reports that 3000 women are entering the wood business in a variety of capacities, including as lumberjacks. Further expanding women’s opportunities in non-traditional roles is a no-brainer in any context, but especially in Japan...

 

APJ

Why Do We Still Need to Talk About "Historical Understanding" in East Asia? August 2014. In Japan today, a spirit of “dislike China, hate Korea” is widespread. Since the summer of 2012, when territorial disputes over the small Senkaku/Diaoyu and Takeshima/Dokto islands became the focus of diplomatic struggle with these neighboring East Asian countries, and even more so since the real possibility has emerged of an armed clash with China, a view has spread in Japan that denies the need to keep talking about historical understanding of the first half of the twentieth century...

 

APJ

Dirty Wars: French and American Piaster Profiteering in Indochina, 1945-75, August 2014. With its economy devastated by war, its national glory sullied by ignominious defeats at the hands of Germany and Japan, and its colonial legacy morally undercut by the Atlantic Charter, France in 1945 faced immense challenges. Especially daunting was the job of restoring its empire, particularly in distant Indochina. For French political leaders and imperialists who equated empire with national greatness, simply granting Indochina its independence was out of the question. But reoccupying the lost colony would be no easy matter...

 

APJ

The Overseas Dispatch of Japan's Self-Defense Forces and U.S. War Preparations, August 2014. Regardless of Prime Minister Abe’s attempt to make the case that collective self-defense is constitutional, for some time the Self-Defense Forces have been working to achieve for Japan the status of a “state that can wage war overseas.” Behind this movement wriggles U.S. intent. “Solely defensive” has been rescinded and the ground prepared for the coming right of collective self-defense...

 

APJ

The Radiation That Makes People Invisible: A Global Hibakusha Perspective, August 2014. Radiation makes people invisible. We know that exposure to radiation can be deleterious to one’s health; can cause sickness and even death when received in high doses. But it does more. People who have been exposed to radiation, or even those who suspect that they have been exposed to radiation, including those who never experience radiation-related illnesses, may find that their lives are forever changed – that they have assumed a kind of second class citizenship...

 

APJ

Economic and Security Reform in Japan: Harder Than It Looks, August 2014. H. D. P. (David) Envall, Research Fellow at the Department of International Relations at Australian National University, writes that "Overextending national security reforms could undermine the government's popularity and thus damage its capacity to undertake difficult economic changes."

 

EWC

Understanding the Persistence of American Alliances and Partnerships in the Asia-Pacific, August 2014. William Tow, Professor at Australian National University, writes that "Understanding why many of these relationships have endured beyond the Cold War and what their applicability is to a rapidly changing regional strategic environment is the subject of a new joint research project now underway involving the East-West Center (EWC), Washington D.C. office, collaborating with the Australian National University (ANU)."

 

EWC

US Comfort Women Memorials: Vehicles for Understanding and Change, August 2014. Mary M. McCarthy, Japan Studies Visiting Fellow at the East-West Center in Washington, states that "local communities in the United States collaborating with their counterparts in South Korea and Japan could make a real difference in promoting understanding on the difficult issue of comfort women."

 

EWC

Prospects for US-India Economic Relations under Prime Minister Modi, August 2014. Pravakar Sahoo, Associate Professor at the Institute of Economic Growth, New Delhi, explains that "The time is now ripe for US firms to do business in India, and Secretary Kerry's visit is good timing, but things will move only if outstanding issues are solved and trust at the highest level restored."

 

EWC

Jokowi's Rise and Indonesia's Second Democratic Transition, August 2014. Vibhanshu Shekhar, Scholar-in-Residence at the ASEAN Studies Center, American University, explains that "A new political voting class in Indonesia is now beginning to emerge that is keen to play a role in the country's democratic politics, is well-informed of issues and interests, and expects a government that is accountable."

 

EWC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

August, 2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

Xi Jinping Visits Seoul: The Bigger Picture, July 2014. China and Korea watchers jumped to attention when it was announced that Xi Jinping would visit South Korea from July 3-4, rather than visit North Korea first. Although the trip could have been seen as reciprocating ROK President Park Geun-hye’s visit to China in June 2013, the Chinese side surely was aware that the trip would be viewed abroad as a departure from standard Chinese protocol and would probably upset Kim Jong-un and his colleagues. But while the trip can be judged a success for China, the North Koreans may have less to worry about than might at first appear...

 

APJ

After the Deluge: Tsunami and the Great Wall of Japan, July 2014. Like hundreds of communities along Japan’s northeast coast, the village of Koizumi exists on maps only. On 11 March 2011, a M9.0 earthquake beneath the Pacific Ocean erupted with the force of a million tons of TNT, triggering towering waves that killed around 19,000 people. In Koizumi, 40 of the 1,800 villagers died. As residents of a country pummeled by tsunami roughly every seven years, the survivors know that someday the calamity will almost certainly return...

 

APJ

Zen Masters on the Battlefield (Part II), July 2014. In Part I of this series we looked at the battlefield experiences of Sōtō Zen Master Sawaki Kōdō during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5. Sawaki’s battlefield reminiscences are relatively short, especially as he had been severely wounded early in the war. Nevertheless, he was able to express the relationship he saw between Zen and war on numerous occasions in the years that followed...

 

APJ

The Sloppy Realities of 3.11 in Shiriagari Kotobuki's Manga, June 2014. “What is important, I think, is to feel that something is real. I feel that “sloppy” things are real. If I were asked “Why?,” though, I could only reply, “Because that’s who I am.” I suppose I could puff myself up and say “Because the world is a sloppy place, that’s why.” This world is half-baked, half-assed, all Buddhist “impermanence” – such that when you say this, it is really that, and when you think you have it here, it is over there. So yes, all that we know for sure is that we are always in the process of change. So what happens when the world changes? Well, the world is going to end, of course...

 

APJ

The Manga "Oishinbo" Controversy: Radiation and Nose Bleeding in the Wake of 3.11, June 2014. "Oishinbo" is the title of a series of manga (comic), meaning “Gourmet Craze”, created and written by Kariya Tetsu. It has been continuously published since 1983 in a comic magazine “Big Comic Spirits” published by Shogakukan (Tokyo), and enjoyed great popularity in Japan. The series, mainly centered on gourmet food, has been re-published in more than 100 books, and in the past caused controversies regarding its criticisms of food and food regulations...

 

APJ

After Nuclear Disaster: The Decision-Making of Fukushima University Authorities, the Threat to Democratic Governance and Countermovement Actions, June 2014. This journal article was written by Nakasatomi Hiroshi in 2011 after the Great Tohoku Earthquake and nuclear disaster. Nakasatomi currently lectures in constitutional law at Tokushima University, but at the time of the disaster he was working at Fukushima University, and living in Fukushima City with his family. The article describes the response of Fukushima University to the nuclear disaster, and efforts by students and staff within the University to build more critical awareness of the situation and foster more activist approaches...

 

APJ

A Spatial Integration Analysis of the Regional Fertilizer Markets in the Philippines, August 2014. Fertilizer, which is an important production input, holds a significant share in total cost of production for some crops. Based on the available fertilizer price data, it can be observed that price levels vary greatly across regions. To help determine whether or not this variability is alarmingly high, a spatial market integration analysis was done. Based on the Granger causality test, it is found that the price in one region either causes or affects prices in another region...

 

PIDS

Compilation and Synthesis of Major Agricultural Value Chain Analysis in the Philippines, August 2014. Recently, the agricultural sector in the Philippines has enjoyed robust growth driven by rapid price increases in key subsectors, namely, rubber, sugarcane, and coconut. The largest subsectors, however, namely, rice and corn, relatively experienced slower growth and exhibited lower competitiveness than high-value crops (e.g., fruits and vegetables). This study undertakes a stock-taking of value chain studies and gap analysis for major agricultural commodities...

 

PIDS

Labor Policy Analysis for Jobs Expansion and Development, July 2014. The Philippines is at a crossroad. It can choose to continue to follow current unrealistic policies that despite good intentions have been shown to be actually detrimental to the poor. Or, it can elect to try another development path to get a better chance at reducing poverty...

 

PIDS

Child Poverty in the Philippines, July 2014. Despite the remarkable economic performance of the Philippines in recent years, poverty remains a core policy issue. And with a relatively young population, the poverty situation concerns largely children who are at the critical stages of their physical, mental, and social development. This report provides a comprehensive profile of children who are living in poverty through data collected from national surveys and administrative records of government agencies...

 

PIDS

The Philippine Manufacturing Industry Roadmap: Agenda for New Industrial Policy, High Productivity Jobs, and Inclusive Growth, June 2014. In the light of the weak performance of the Philippine manufacturing industry and the absence of structural transformation of the economy from agriculture to manufacturing in the last two decades, the paper calls for the implementation of a new industrial policy. This is crucial not only to upgrade Philippine industries, generate more and better jobs, and reduce poverty but also to take advantage of the market opportunities and face the challenges arising from the ASEAN Economic Community...

 

PIDS

Designing a Cooperation Framework for Philippine Competition and Regulatory Agencies, June 2014. As the Philippines move toward the legislation of its comprehensive competition law, one important issue that has emerged is the interaction between the competition agency and sector regulators. Based on a review of different approaches that different countries have adopted, the paper develops a framework for the interplay between regulatory agencies and competition authority in the Philippines...

 

PIDS

Toward Competitive and Innovative ASEAN SMEs: Philippine SME Policy Index 2012, June 2014. The ASEAN SME Policy Index is an analytical tool to review, track, and identify gaps in small and medium enterprise (SME) policy development and implementation. The index covers the following eight policy areas: institutional framework; cheaper and faster start-up and better legislation and regulation for SMEs; access to information and supporting services; access to finance; technology and technology transfer; market access and getting more output of the single market; promotion of entrepreneurial education; and developing stronger, more effective representation for SMEs` interests...

 

PIDS

Multisectoral Coalition to Advocate for Reforms in Services Sector, April-June 2014. This second issue of the Development Research News announces the revival of the Philippine Services Coalition that will study and advocate for reforms in the services sector, parts of which are said to have restrictive policies on investment. The sector is the engine of growth for the Philippine economy with a potential to attract a large amount of foreign direct investments and generate millions of jobs...

 

PIDS

Regional Integration, Inclusive Growth, and Poverty: Enhancing Employment Opportunities for the Poor, 2014. Regional economic integration in East Asia is characterized initially as a market-driven process of increased trade and foreign direct investment inflows, and eventually by formal arrangements to liberalize trade and integrate economic activities through free trade agreements among East and Southeast Asian countries...

 

PIDS

India's Food Grain Policies and the Public Distribution System: The Case of Rice. Who Wins, Who Loses, and by How Much? 2014. Indian governments follow highly interventionist policies on food grains, especially rice and wheat. These policies include import and export controls which insulate the domestic market from world markets, a minimum support price (MSP) program which supports and controls domestic wholesale prices, large farm input subsidies, and consumer subsidy programs which provide rice and wheat through about half a million “fair price shops” to low income (below the poverty line-BPL) consumers at very low controlled prices...

 

ASARC

The Potential and Constraints of the Exports of Environmental Goods (EGs): The Case of Bangladesh, 2014. Although the economic importance of environmental goods (EGs) is on a rise with increasing focus on global climate change issues, it is surprising that export growth of environmental goods is witnessing a downward trend in developing countries compared to developed countries...

 

ASARC

Responding to Indo-Pacific Rivalry: Australia, India and Middle Power Coalitions, August 2014. China’s rising assertiveness and uncertainties about America’s response to it are causing middle powers in Indo-Pacific Asia to look beyond traditional approaches to security. India, Australia, Japan and some ASEAN countries are expanding security cooperation with each other. The next step should be the creation of ‘middle power coalitions’: informal arrangements where regional players cooperate with one another on strategic issues, working in self-selecting groups that do not include China or the United States...

 

Lowy

China's Climate Change Policies: Actors and Drivers, July 2014. China, the world’s largest greenhouse gas emitter, has a poor reputation on environmental issues and was seen to be obstructive at the Copenhagen climate change talks in 2009. Yet paradoxically, China has invested significant resources into policies which reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These policies have been driven primarily by domestic considerations – energy demand, smog, and economic restructuring – but international image has also been a factor. The public outcry in recent years against air pollution has given urgency to the need for a cleaner growth path...

 

Lowy

Framework on Community Based Inter vention to Control NCD Risk Factors, August 2014. APEC economies take a concrete action to support WHO Global Action Plan and UN General Assembly Political Declaration 2011 to empower community through Community Based Intervention (CBI) while strengthening and reorienting the primary health care system. This framework aims to better understand community based intervention in different settings and also enables to identify approaches and challenges based on experience from several APEC economies.

 

APEC

Services and Manufacturing: Patterns of Linkages, July 2014. This policy unit first discusses the nature of services-manufacturing linkage. It then discusses how services' role in manufacturing had increased. Business services, it appears, is a dominant services input in manufacturing and is discussed next in greater length, including the various regulations in the sector that can act as barriers to trade. The policy brief concludes with implications for trade policy.

 

APEC

ANSSR: Enhancing the Quality and Relevance of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for Current and Future Industry Needs-Phase 1, June 2014. This project is aimed at assisting Malaysia and other economies to implement one of the priorities of the APEC New Strategy on Structural Reform (ANSSR) Action Plan which is related to “Upgrading Skills and Capabilities of Existing Workforce to Address the Needs of Industries”. This priority is in-line with ANSSR as endorsed by Leaders in November 2010.

 

APEC

Independent Assessment of the APEC Tourism Working Group, May 2014. The APEC Tourism Working Group (TWG) was established in 1991 in recognition of the importance of travel and tourism and its importance to economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region. This independent assessment of the TWG is intended to strengthen the work processes of the group and ensure that it is responsive to APEC current priorities and contributes to the achievement of APEC’s overall vision and objectives.

 

APEC

APEC Harmonization Center Annual Report 2013, Published 2014. The APEC Harmonization Center Annual Report 2013 gives an overview of AHC's activities, further promoting communication and cooperation in APEC.

 

APEC

Caveats for the Mongolia-China Strategic Partnership, July 2014. Mendee Jargalsaikhan, Asia Studies Visiting Fellow at the East-West Center in Washington, explains that "From the Mongolian perspective, the strategic partnership with China is important across a number of areas, but there are caveats, especially concerning the economy, security, and culture."

 

EWC

US Arms Sales to India, July 2014. Dinshaw Mistry, Asia Studies Visiting Fellow at the East-West Center in Washington, explains that "New Delhi's defense procurements from the United States are worth a substantial $15 billion."

 

EWC

Broadcasting Justice: Media Outreach at the Khmer Rouge Trials, July 2014. Increasingly, individuals who have perpetrated mass atrocities are being held to account in criminal tribunals. Whether these are in-country tribunals or convened elsewhere, one of their main purposes is to obtain justice for victims. Building a bridge between the tribunal and the affected population is key to achieving this and other goals, such as promoting the rule of law and community reconciliation...

 

EWC

Trade and Innovation in Global Networks - Regional Policy Implications, May 2014. This Think Piece explores how integration into international trade through global networks of production (GPNs) and innovation (GINs) might affect a region's innovation capacity. As regions across the globe are progressively integrated into those global networks--some certainly more than others--these regions are all faced with a fundamental challenge...

 

EWC

Asian Development Outlook 2014 Supplement: Stable Growth Outlook for Developing Asia, July 2014. Developing Asia’s outlook remains on track despite slower-than-expected first quarter growth in the United States. The region is projected to grow steadily at 6.2% in 2014 and 6.4% in 2015, the same rates envisaged in Asian Development Outlook 2014. Slight downward revisions to GDP forecasts for Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific are balanced by upward adjustments for South Asia. Relatively stable oil prices and declining food prices are helping to keep inflation in check such that consumer prices in the region are now expected to rise more slowly in 2014 than previously projected...

 

ADB

Challenges and Opportunities of Population Aging in the People's Republic of China, July 2014. The population in the People's Republic of China (PRC) is aging rapidly. The proportion of people aged 60 years and above is expected to increase from 12% in 2010 to 33% by 2050, turning the PRC into the oldest population in the world. Health care costs and dependency ratios will increase in parallel...

 

ADB

Whither Multilateral Development Finance? July 2014. Multilateral development finance is at a critical juncture. In the past 70 years, it has developed through four distinct stages. The Bretton Woods conference established the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund in 1944 to finance post-war reconstruction and stabilize the global economy. The second stage saw the establishment of regional development banks in the 1950s and 1960s...

 

ADB

Service Sector Productivity and Economic Growth in Asia, July 2014. This paper explores the impacts of more rapid growth in labor productivity in the service sector in Asia based on an empirical general equilibrium model. The model allows for input–output linkages and capital movements across industries and economies, and consumption and investment dynamics...

 

ADB

Policies to Enhance Trade Facilitation in South Asia and Southeast Asia, July 2014. This paper discusses trade facilitation in the context of enhancing trading links between South and Southeast Asia, in a manner understandable to the non-specialist. Presently, these two Asian regions tend to trade preferentially with distant markets. One of the reasons cited for the limited trade between themselves is that trade facilitation with trade partners in developed countries is more user friendly and stable...

 

ADB

Financial Stability and Financial Inclusion, July 2014. Developing economies are seeking to promote financial inclusion, i.e., greater access to financial services for low-income households and firms, as part of their overall strategies for economic and financial development. This raises the question of whether financial stability and financial inclusion are, broadly speaking, substitutes or complements. In other words, does the move toward greater financial inclusion tend to increase or decrease financial stability...

 

ADB

Energy Security, Sustainability, and Affordability in Asia and the Pacific, July 2014. This paper calculates energy security, sustainability, and affordability from 2010 to 2035 for the Asia and Pacific region using the following indicators: primary energy intensity, carbon dioxide intensity of the primary energy mix, energy self-sufficiency, affordability of electricity, and primary energy diversification. It then assesses the potential benefits of integrating energy systems within the region...

 

ADB

Measuring Social Protection Expenditures in Southeast Asia: Estimates Using the Social Protection Index, July 2014. This paper provides a cross-country analysis of social protection programs in Southeast Asia. ADB’s Social Protection Index is used to assess program coverage, benefit-level, and impact on poverty and gender equity. While social protection expenditures differ across country income classifications, results show that total spending has remained low...

 

ADB

RETA 7834: Assessment and Implications of Rationalizing and Phasing Out Fossil Fuel Subsidies (Finalization Conference Report, 26-27 May 2014). This publication presents preliminary findings of an ADB technical assistance study on fossil fuel subsidy reform in India, Indonesia, and Thailand, and the feedback at a conference from peer reviewers, policy makers, and experts in economics, energy, environment and poverty issues. The study quantifies fossil-fuel subsidies, analyzes the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of subsidy reform, and discusses social welfare measures to mitigate the negative impacts of reforms on households...

 

ADB

e-Quarterly Research Bulletin, Volume 5, Number 2, April-June 2014 . In this issue of e-Quarterly Research Bulletin:
  • Inequality in Asia and the Pacific: Trends, Drivers, and Policy Implications
  • Fiscal Policy for Inclusive Growth
 

ADB

Local Public Finance Management in the People's Republic of China: Challenges and Opportunities, Published 2014 . The People’s Republic of China is a highly decentralized unitary state with local governments having a dominant share of public service delivery responsibility. Local governance is critically linked to a local public finance system that creates incentives and accountability mechanisms. To ensure the policy response, this project focused on the three interrelated areas in local public finance management, i.e., local budgeting, local debt management and local taxation, and produced policy options in the short, medium and long terms...

 

ADB

Tap Secrets: The Manila Water Story, Published 2014. In this book, Manila Water tells its story - the story of a water utility’s amazing transformation that is anchored on tapping the unlimited potential of important yet often underappreciated corporate resources. This is the secret of Manila Water’s success. Within each and every employee's story, when told collectively, is Manila Water's secret told.

 

ADB

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

  

 
 

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