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We index full-text journals with open access platforms in our NEW Asia-Studies Full-Text Plus section. Here is the list of journals available.

 
 

 

 
 

 

 
 

 

 
 

February, 2016 Current Topics

 

Source

 

 

 

 

Trends in Southeast Asia 2016 #1: Making Sense of the Election Results in Myanmar’s Rakhine and Shan States. This paper examines why ethnic parties did well in Rakhine and Shan States despite the fact that the National League for Democracy (NLD) was given a manifest mandate by the Myanmar electorate to represent its interests nationwide. In Rakhine State, the electorate chose the Arakan National Party (ANP) over the other parties because of the fear that their cultural identity and right to govern themselves are threatened by Bamar political and cultural hegemony and Muslim/South Asian encroachment from the western border...

 

ISEAS

Infrastructure Investment, Private Finance, and Institutional Investors: Asia from a Global Perspective, January 2016. This study evaluates infrastructure investment and finance in Asia from a global perspective. It provides an overview on infrastructure needs and the various sources of private finance, globally and within Asia, and creates a “bigger picture” for the demand and supply of capital for infrastructure by using a simple framework, i.e., percentages of gross domestic product. The picture is expectedly not uniform across Asia, but some interesting features emerge from global comparisons. Overall, the private sector still plays a relatively subdued role. Bank loans dominate private infrastructure finance, and there is much scope for the further development of capital markets...

 

ADB

Urbanization and Inequality in Hypertension Diagnosis and Medication in Indonesia, January 2016. Urbanization has been progressing quickly in Indonesia and the consequences on health and health inequities are still not well understood. In this paper, we present new empirical evidence on the differences in the utilization of health care services between rural and urban areas as well as for the respective health inequities. Exploiting the rich dataset of the Indonesian Family Life Survey, this paper measures the socioeconomic inequality of health care utilization for the case of the diagnosis of hypertension and its medication...

 

ADB

Impact of Gender Inequality on the Republic of Korea’s Long-Term Economic Growth: An Application of the Theoretical Model of Gender Inequality and Economic Growth, January 2016. Calibrating a gender inequality growth model to fit Korean data, we find that policies that seek to reduce gender discrimination in the labor market or increase the time spent by fathers on child-rearing can contribute positively to female labor market participation and to the Republic of Korea’s per capita income growth. When gender disparities at home and in the labor market are completely removed, the female labor force participation rate is shown to increase from 54.4% to 67.5%, and the per capita income growth rate from 3.6% to 4.1% on average over a generation.

 

ADB

Women’s Leadership and Corporate Performance, January 2016. Is leadership diversified in Asian corporate boardrooms? How is gender diversity in corporate leadership associated with financial performance? What is the magnitude of potential gain by allocating human talents more efficiently without gender bias? What kind of policy might be useful to improve the gender diversity in corporate leadership? This paper provides insights into these questions through theoretical review and empirical analyses. It examines the gender diversity in corporate boardrooms in Asia and the Pacific and how the diversity affects corporate performance.

 

ADB

Policy Notes:  

PIDS

Economic Issue of the Day:  

PIDS

Development Research News:  

PIDS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

January, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

Asserting Statehood: Kazakhstan’s Role in International Organizations, December 2015. Since the fall of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan has developed a record of being the most proactive and innovative former Soviet republic in the sphere of international cooperation. Kazakhstan’s multilateral relations have always expressed a clear logic: to establish itself as a reliable and constructive international actor. The core of this strategy has been to create several foreign policy pillars – Russia, China, the U.S., the EU, Turkey – without prioritizing one too heavily over the other. However, in recent years the Russian pillar has expanded heavily, thus compromising the delicate balance of Kazakhstan's multi-vector foreign policy...

 

ISDP

The EU, Central Asia, and the Development of Continental Transport and Trade, December 2015. Since the collapse of the USSR, a number of initiatives have embarked, separately or together, on the momentous task of rebuilding trade and transportation arteries across Central Asia and the Caucasus. The underlying logic has been two-fold: by reconnecting the landlocked new states of the region to their neighbors and historic trading partners, the heart of Asia can become a land corridor connecting Europe to Asia. This paper plots out the main lines of transport and trade development in Central Asia and their potential for both regional states and the European Union...

 

ISDP

Happiness and Government: The Role of Public Spending and Governance Effectiveness, July 2015. We apply ordered probit regressions on World Value Survey data, government spending data, public governance data, the median age of countries, etc., covering wave 5 and wave 6 that encompass 78 countries. We use two alternative and entirely new methods to identify optimal government spending. We found that, on average, countries under-spend on healthcare and over-spend on education...

 

LINHK

 

Food Security and Small Landholders in South Asia, Published 2015. This paper surveys the status of food security in the South Asian countries, particularly India. Particular attention has been paid to small landholders (those households owning less than 2 hectares of land). Using NSS data from 1993-94 and 2004-05 the paper shows that small landholders are an increasing proportion of i) total rural households, ii) rural households who are poor, and iii) rural households who are undernourished. The paper then singles out five disconnects in India’s recent economic performance as constituting the reason for this outcome...

 

ASARC

Hong Kong: High Frequency Macroeconomic Forecasts Current Quarter Model: 2016Q1, January 2016. According to its High Frequency Macroeconomic Forecast, real GDP is estimated to grow by 2.0% in 15Q4, when compared with the same period in 2014. It is estimated to growth by 2.4% for the year of 2015 as a whole. In 16Q1, real GDP growth is forecast to be 1.8% when compared with the same period last year. We expect Hong Kong GDP is likely to grow below 2.0% in the year of 2016, slower than 2015.

 

HKU

MAS Survey of Professional Forecasters, December 2015. The December 2015 Survey was sent out on 25 November 2015 to a total of 28 economists and analysts who closely monitor the Singapore economy. This report reflects the views received from 22 respondents (a response rate of 79%) and does not represent MAS’ views or forecasts. GDP growth in Q3 2015 was weaker than expected. The Singapore economy expanded by 1.9% in Q3 2015 compared with the same period last year. This was lower than the median forecast of 2.1% reported in the Sep 2015 Survey. For 2015 as a whole, the economy is forecast to expand by 1.9%. The respondents expect the economy to grow by 1.9% in 2015, a decline from the 2.2% median forecast in the previous survey...

 

MAS

MAS Financial Stability Review, November 2015. Uneven growth and divergent monetary policies across the G3 pose risks to financial stability in Asia and Singapore. At the same time, weak commodity prices have put strains on commodity-related firms with knock-on effects on banks, financial markets, sovereign balance sheets, and economies. Recent geopolitical developments could fuel further uncertainty. Meanwhile, China faces a delicate balance between near-term economic performance and asset market stability on the one hand and longer-term structural reforms on the other. Strong intra-regional linkages could increase contagion from a China-related shock, while subdued regional growth adds to headwinds in Asia. Singapore’s financial system remains sound, but industry must stand vigilant against rising risks...

 

MAS

Black Flag Rising: ISIL in Southeast Asia and Australia, December 2015. Although the prime focus of Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) has been on establishing a state—a caliphate—in the Middle East, it has also sought to gain a presence beyond that area. Southeast Asia is one region that’s now receiving increased attention as a potential beachhead for the group. Most concern has focused on Malaysia, Indonesia, the southern Philippines and the Malay Muslim provinces of Thailand. The paper considers how these nations are responding to the threat. Beyond Southeast Asia, ISIL is showing a growing influence in Australia. The measures the Australian Government are taking have been generally well received. However, a number of concerns have been raised about the pace and nature of Australia’s emergent counterterrorist strategy and their implications for the nation’s democratic character.

 

ASPI

Trends in Southeast Asia 2015 #21: The Politics of the United States-China-Vietnam Triangle in the 21st Century. Vietnams balancing of power act, namely the policy of seeking a counterweight to the China threat, and the politics of the U.S.VietnamChina triangle, may have taken shape in the early years of the twenty-first century, but it was deeply rooted in the changing relations between the big powers in the 1980s and Vietnams need to adjust its policy to these changes. A combination of factors geographical proximity, ideological affinity, and the need for regime survival tends to make Vietnamese leaders more comfortable with China than with the United States...

 

ISEAS

Obama Doubles-down on Maritime Capacity Building in Southeast Asia, December 2015. Lyle J. Morris, Project Associate at the RAND Corporation, explains that “By contributing to coast guard capacity building by donating ships and funding, the United States has found an important and politically viable avenue to bolster maritime security to partners and allies in the region.”

 

EWC

ASEAN and Its SMEs – A New Opportunity? December 2015. Ganeshan Wignaraja, Advisor in the Economic Research and Regional Cooperation Department at the Asian Development Bank, explains that “In an era of moderating growth, ASEAN and its SMEs involved in supply chains represent an opportunity for investors and for sustaining growth.”

 

EWC

The Japan Coast Guard (JCG) as a Foreign Policy Instrument in Southeast Asia, December 2015. Miha Hribernik, Non-Resident WSD-Handa Fellow with Pacific Forum CSIS, explains that “As Japan’s strategic competition with China intensifies, the Japanese Coast Guard is moving to the forefront of Tokyo’s growing security cooperation with Southeast Asia.”

 

EWC

El Nino Strengthens in the Pacific: Preparing for the Impacts of Drought, December 2015. A drought is moving through the Pacific Islands, brought by one of the strongest El Niño events since record keeping began 60 years ago. It started in the southwest Pacific, where it has brought famine to Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu. It is expected to reach the South Pacific, tropical West Pacific, and Hawaiian Islands between December 2015 and May 2016, potentially affecting 4.7 million people...

 

EWC

Alternative Waste Solutions for the Pacific Region: Learning from the Hawai'i Experience, November 2015. With limited space and ever-growing trash, the islands of the Pacific share unique challenges managing their solid wastes. The traditional approach has been to collect waste in open dumps and landfills. But overwhelmed sites and unsanitary conditions are driving governments to seek alternative solutions...

 

EWC

Unconventional Monetary Policy, Spillovers, and Liftoff: Implications for Northeast Asia, November 2015. Unconventional monetary policy (UMP) has had predictable effects. How exit plays out is scenario-dependent. Quantitative easing has had the predictable effect of encouraging currency depreciation and some partner countries may have attempted to offset these exchange rate effects. Korea presents a particularly interesting case: it is relatively small and relatively open and integrated, in both trade and financial terms, with the United States and Japan, two practitioners of UMP...

 

EWC

Causes and Remedies for Japan’s Long-Lasting Recession: Lessons for the People’s Republic of China, December 2015. Japan has suffered from sluggish economic growth and recession since the early 1990s. In this paper, we analyze the causes of the prolonged slowdown of the Japanese economy (the lost decade). Economics Nobel laureate Paul Krugman has argued that Japan’s lost decade is an example of a liquidity trap. However, our empirical analysis shows that stagnation of the Japanese economy comes from its vertical IS curve rather than a horizontal LM curve, so the Japanese economy faces structural problems rather than a temporary downturn...

 

ADB

Asian Economic Integration Report 2015: How Can Special Economic Zones Catalyze Economic Development? Published 2015. Special economic zones (SEZs) can play a catalytic role in economic development, provided the right business environment and policies are put in place. In Asia, SEZs can facilitate trade, investment, and policy reform at a time the region is experiencing a slowdown in trade and economic growth. The Asian Economic Integration Report is an annual review of Asia’s regional economic cooperation and integration. It covers the 48 regional members of the Asian Development Bank.

 

ADB

Managing the Transition to a Low-Carbon Economy: Perspectives, Policies, and Practices from Asia, Published 2015. The aim of this study is to share the experiences of developed Asian economies and the lessons they have learned. The book assesses the low-carbon and green policies and practices taken by developed Asian countries, identifies gaps, and examines new opportunities for low-carbon green growth.

 

ADB

Uncovering Value Added in Trade: New Approaches to Analyzing Global Value Chains, Published 2015. This book is a collection of research papers on new approaches to measure trade in value added and the role of global value chains in modern international trade. It introduces the input output method for measuring trade and a direct approach for measuring the domestic value added of the People's Republic of China — the center of global assembly. In addition, it shows how to analyze trade relations in the context of global value chains.

 

ADB

Constraints to Indonesia's Economic Growth, December 2015. In the near–term, growth is likely to be influenced by continuing weaknesses in global economic activity, weak international commodity prices, and rising foreign financing costs. In the medium–term, however, Indonesia’s growth prospects are good. Rising domestic demand, productivity improvement, increased urbanization, the shift of labor from agriculture to manufacturing and service sector activity, and increased trade and investment flows should drive higher rates of economic growth and development.

 

ADB

Summary of Indonesia's Finance Sector Assessment, December 2015. Financial sector development is critical for reducing poverty through better access to financial products and services for the poor and low-income families. The Indonesian financial sector remains small and far more dominated by banks than its regional peers. Some of the reasons for the small size of the overall financial sector are: fragmented regulatory structure; regulatory framework not in line with international best practices; and an enabling environment that is less conducive to financial sector development, including lack of diversity in capital market products.

 

ADB

Summary of Indonesia's Energy Sector Assessment, December 2015. Indonesia has coal resources at around 120.5 billion tons, proven oil resources at around 3.69 billion barrels, and proven natural gas reserves at around 101.54 trillion cubic feet. This translates into about 23 remaining years of oil reserves, 59 years of gas, and 146 years of coal at current production rates. Indonesia’s renewable energy sources are also considerable. The country is endowed with significant potential for hydropower, micro/mini hydropower, solar, biomass, and wind, and holds 40% of the world’s geothermal reserves...

 

ADB

Malaria Elimination, Published 2015. The Regional Malaria and Other Communicable Disease Threats Trust Fund supports developing member countries in developing multi-country, cross-border, and multisector responses to urgent malaria and other communicable disease issues...

 

ADB

Thailand: Industrialization and Economic Catch-Up, Published 2015.
This report identifies some of Thailand’s critical development constraints and discusses policy measures and economic reforms needed to accelerate economic transformation toward a more modern and service-oriented economy. Thailand’s economic and social transformation of the last 50 years has placed it in the ranks of upper middle-income countries and made it an integral part of global value chains. It has also established itself as a regional hub for key transport and logistics, with a world-class airport...

 

ADB

Promoting Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage through Carbon Dioxide-Enhanced Oil Recovery in the People’s Republic of China, Published 2015. Injecting carbon dioxide (CO2) to improve the recovery of oil from a depleted oil well is a proven process commonly known as carbon dioxide–enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR). Since most of the injected CO2 will be permanently isolated from the atmosphere, capturing CO2 from an industrial plant (including power plants) and utilizing it for CO2-EOR is commonly known as carbon capture, utilization, and storage and is an effective approach to mitigate CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel based plants...

 

ADB

Addressing Climate Change Risks, Disasters, and Adaptation in the People’s Republic of China, Published 2015. It is vital for countries to identify climate risks, reduce these risks through mitigation, and adapt to these risks—thereby increasing resilience and reducing vulnerability. This study informs decision makers regarding major climate change risks to development and provides feasible policy recommendations for consideration to increase resilience and reduce vulnerability in the water, agriculture, and natural resource sectors of the People’s Republic of China.

 

ADB

Achieving Environmental Sustainability in Myanmar, December 2015.Myanmar’s long isolation from international markets and sources of finance historically limited development, and thus, the pressure on its environment. Many of its resources remain relatively intact, despite an absence of effective environmental regulations. Yet, as the country integrates into the global economy and its economic development accelerates, resource degradation is rising rapidly. This paper aims to identify current and future environmental problems in Myanmar, the pressures underpinning them, and the policy measures that can manage them.

 

ADB

Public Debt Sustainability in Developing Asia: An Update, December 2015. The paper updates debt sustainability analysis (DSA) for developing Asia, conducted in 2011. With the benefit of hindsight, the accuracy of the earlier debt ratio forecasts and underlying macroeconomic assumptions is assessed...

 

ADB

Myanmar Human Capital Development, Employment, and Labor Markets, December 2015. Human capital is one of the core prerequisites for rapid, sustainable, and inclusive economic growth. Investments in health and education—including technical and vocational education and training—will be essential to engineer a productive labor force in Myanmar while ensuring that all population segments can contribute to and benefit from growth. This paper focuses on developing human capital, with a focus on health and education in the context of employment growth and an employment-enabling environment.

 

ADB

Myanmar’s Agriculture Sector: Unlocking the Potential for Inclusive Growth, December 2015. With extensive land, water, and labor resources, as well as proximity to fast-growing markets, the country’s agriculture has key competitive advantages. This paper proposes key actions to address agricultural constraints including improving land tenure, expanding credit availability, investing in input markets for nutrients and machinery, developing drainage and irrigation systems, and enhancing rural transport and electricity connectivity. This was written as a background paper for the ADB Myanmar Country Diagnostics Study.

 

ADB

Nowcasting Indonesia, December 2015. We produce predictions of the current state of the Indonesian economy by estimating a Dynamic Factor Model on indicators closely watched by market operators over the period of 2002–2014. Besides the standard difficulties associated with constructing timely indicators of current economic conditions, Indonesia presents additional challenges typical to emerging market economies where data are often scant and unreliable. By means of a pseudo-real-time forecasting exercise, we show that our predictions are comparable to those of market operators. Careful selection of indicators is also shown to be crucial for better forecast performance when data quality is low

 

ADB

Innovations in Knowledge and Learning for Competitive Higher Education in Asia and the Pacific, Published 2015. Higher education institutions in Asia and the Pacific, modelled on industrial age thinking that demands excellence in routinized capacities, lack the ability to innovate and create new knowledge enterprises. The transition to a knowledge economy is affecting the purpose, content, pedagogy, and methodologies of higher education. Nontraditional stakeholders such as professional bodies, industry experts, think tanks, research institutes, and field experts/practitioners are now involved not only in planning but in providing higher education services. The traditional model of “knowledge versus skills” is no longer relevant. Higher education programs must consider lived experiences, contextual knowledge, and indigenous knowledge.

 

ADB

Integrated Information and Communication Technology Strategies for Competitive Higher Education in Asia and the Pacific, Published 2015. Higher education institutions must adopt an institution-wide, holistic information and communication technology (ICT) strategy, not a project-based approach, to avoid redundancies, obsolescence, and large maintenance costs. A coordinated top-down plus bottom-up intervention is best, with three areas requiring attention: infrastructure, application software, and staff development. ICT investments in higher education institutions in support of teaching, research, and community engagement are essential for developing and retaining competitive advantage in the knowledge economy.

 

ADB

A Review and Evaluation of Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Labeling and Consumer Information Programs, November 2015. The report is based on desk-based research into the literature concerning VFEL and a survey of 18 economies (13 of which are members of APEC). The aim was to identify components of VFEL, and best practice within each component. These findings were then used to evaluate existing VFEL programs in order to highlight areas in which individual programs met or fell short of best practice.

 

APEC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December, 2015

 

 

 

 

 

 

Russia's Asian Rebalance, December 2015. Russia’s ambitious decision to ‘rebalance’ its strategic orientation towards Asia is going relatively unnoticed, yet has the potential to generate significant regional effects. It is engaging in a large-scale military modernisation project with the intention of projecting power into Asia. Its relationship with China seems to have deepened considerably. And it is looking to consolidate new and existing partnerships in Australia’s regional area of interest in the Indo-Pacific. At the same time, Russia is seeking to tap its considerable energy and resource reserves in the Far East to become a major Asian energy supplier...

 

Lowy

Chinese Worldviews and China's Foreign Policy, November 2015. China’s growing assertiveness, particularly in the South China Sea, has resulted in greater scrutiny of Chinese intentions and led to a more intense debate about how the United States and its allies should respond. For some, the motives for China’s international behaviour are simply those of any emerging — or in China’s case, re-emerging — power. However, to gain a more nuanced understanding of what is motivating Chinese behaviour it is necessary to examine the narratives that underpin Chinese worldviews and China’s foreign policy behaviour...

 

Lowy

Implementing the Defence First Principles Review: Two Key Opportunities to Achieve Best Practice in Capability Development, December 2015. This paper proposes two key measures on which to judge the early success of Defence’s capability development reforms. First, the formation of an industry-standard program management office (PMO) to oversee the life cycle of all acquisition projects from inception to final operational capability as part of comprehensive and balanced programs. Second, the creation of a robust centralised branch to manage all test and evaluation (T&E), so that all projects have credible test results that underpin the PMO’s decision-making throughout the development and fielding of new capabilities.

 

ASPI

Chinese Investment in the Port of Darwin: A Strategic Risk for Australia? December 2015. Few strategic issues have galvanised public attention in Australia as the decision by the Northern Territory Government to lease key facilities in the Port of Darwin to a Chinese company, Landbridge. This Strategic Insights brings together items published on our blog The Strategist as well as articles by ASPI staff published in other media outlets such as The Australian and The Australian Financial Review...

 

ASPI

ADF Capability Snapshot 2015: Part 3 - Army, November 2015. The main focus of the Australian Army over the past 15 years has been on sustaining combat, training, stabilisation and peacekeeping operations in our near region and the Middle East and Afghanistan theatres. The demands of the ADF’s operational tempo have driven a major rethinking of the structure of the Army under Plan Beersheba. Now well advanced, the end state will be three essentially similar brigades, which will make rotational deployments easier to manage and sustain. Like the RAAF and the RAN, described in previous reports in this series, the Army needs a major recapitalisation of its equipment.

 

ASPI

ADF Capability Snapshot 2015: Part 2 - RAN, November 2015. This paper surveys the capability of the Royal Australian Navy and is an update of a previously published ADF capability review: Royal Australian Navy from 2008 and the Navy Capability Review 2010. Navy has made great strides in the past five years. Some smart acquisitions have helped, but there’s also been a better focus on managing the fleet and its people, and in working with industry to bring the various elements of capability together. There’s plenty of work to do, and the future submarine, minor vessel and frigate projects will require plenty of attention.

 

ASPI

Trends in Southeast Asia 2015 #20: Thailand’s Post-Coup Relations with China and America: More Beijing, Less Washington. During the Cold War, well-informed foreign journalists did not navely accept the Thai official narrative that the monarchy was strictly above politics. They were well aware of the influence and political power of the palace. However, they believed the institution was necessary for Thailand to survive the communist threat, oppressive military leaders and corrupt politicians. For decades, their coverage helped promote the benign image of the institution internationally. The intransigent crisis in Thailand since the coup dtat of 2006 inevitably affected foreign press coverage regarding the key players role in the conflict. Discussions of the role of the monarchy and the royalist elites have appeared more frequently than ever and become increasingly critical...

 

ISEAS

Trends in Southeast Asia 2015 #19: Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia in 2014: The Political Economy of Discontent. During the 2014 presidential election, Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (HTI), an organization committed to creating a global Islamic caliphate that would replace democracy, rejected both Joko Widodos and Prabowo Subiantos candidacy. However, as in previous legislative elections, its members were allowed to vote for parliamentary candidates that would push for the application of Islamic law.HTI has been compelled to clarify its position regarding the emergence of support of IS in Indonesia. It clearly condemns ISs use of violence as a means of establishing the caliphate, but at the same time, it uses the issue to reinforce its anti-Western narrative...

 

ISEAS

Trends in Southeast Asia 2015 #18: The Foreign Press’ Changing Perceptions Of Thailand's Monarchy. Since the Thai military seized power in May 2014, Thailand's relations with the United States have significantly deteriorated, while the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) has quickly emerged as the Kingdoms closest Great Power partner. U.S.-Thai defence cooperation has been the main casualty of the coup, and represents a setback for the Obama administrations pivot or rebalance towards Asia, the success of which depends in large part on strengthening bilateral alliances and increasing Americas presence in Asia. Even before the coup, the U.S.-Thai alliance was facing difficulties. Since Washington announced the pivot in 2011, neither civilian nor military leaders in Thailand have evinced genuine support for the strategy...

 

ISEAS

Asian Development Outlook December 2015 Supplement: Growth Holds Its Own In Developing Asia. The outlook for aggregate gross domestic product is unchanged from the Update at 5.8% expansion in 2015 and 6.0% in 2016, as subregional forecasts are unchanged except for slight downward revisions for Central Asia and the Pacific. The regional forecast is sustained in the face of a lower combined growth outlook for the major industrial economies of the United States (US), the euro area, and Japan. Sluggish recovery in the US and further contraction of gross domestic product (GDP) in Japan prompt downward revisions in the growth projections for these economies in 2015 and 2016.

 

ADB

The Impact of Infrastructure on Trade and Economic Growth in Selected Economies in Asia, December 2015. Infrastructure plays a key role in facilitating trade, especially since recent trade liberalization in Asia has resulted in significant tariff reductions. This study quantifies the impacts of both hard and soft infrastructure on trade volume for exporters and importers in the region as well as on various economic growth indicators.

 

ADB

Pacific Economic Monitor, December 2015. Expectations of faster global growth in 2015 failed to materialize due to lower-than-projected expansion in the People’s Republic of China, Japan, and the United States (US). The consensus global growth forecast is now at 3.1% in 2015—down from 3.7%. This is projected to strengthen to 3.6% in 2016—below the start of year forecast (4.0%). Risks to this outlook include possible oil price shocks from conflicts in Syria and financial disruptions that may be triggered by monetary tightening in the US.

 

ADB

Asia Bond Monitor, November 2015. Yields for 10-year local currency (LCY) government bonds in emerging East Asia were mostly down between 1 September and 31 October. Investor confidence was buoyed as financial markets in the region stabilized and stock markets staged a recovery. The Philippines had the largest drop in 10-year bond yields in the region with a decline of 64 basis points (bps). The People's Republic of China; Hong Kong, China; and Singapore all saw 10-year bond yields decline by more than 30 bps. Only Indonesia experienced an increase of a marginal 7 bps. Emerging East Asia’s LCY bond market grew 5.8% quarter-on-quarter (q-o-q) and 14.7% year-on-year (y-o-y) in 3Q15 to level off at US$8,782 billion at the end of September. Both q-o-q and y-o-y growth rates were higher than in 2Q15.

 

ADB

Managing Capital Flows in Asia: An Overview of Key Issues, November 2015. Recent data show that the main impact of capital flows on the economies of East Asia is reflected in real effective exchange rates, equity prices, and accumulation of foreign exchange reserves. In particular, econometric results show the strong linkages between the United States bond markets and those in Asia, particularly the adverse impact of quantitative easing tapering on Asian economies. These findings support the important role of macroprudential policy, which can be implemented in the context of regional cooperation in order to reduce negative spillovers across economies in Asia.

 

ADB

Global Increase in Climate-Related Disasters, November 2015. Is there an ominous link between the global increase of these hydrometeorological and climatological events on the one side and anthropogenic climate change on the other? This paper considers three main disaster risk factors—rising population exposure, greater population vulnerability, and increasing climate-related hazards—behind the increased frequency of intense climate-related natural disasters. All are positively linked—with precipitation positively associated with hydrometeorological events and negatively associated with climatological events. Global climate change indicators also show positive and highly significant effects.

 

ADB

Roadmap for Carbon Capture and Storage Demonstration and Deployment in the People’s Republic of China, November 2015. This report is an assessment of the potential, the barriers and the challenges in demonstrating and deploying Carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the People's Republic of China. It identifies unique low cost opportunities, recommends a gradual two phase approach to CCS deployment in the country and, provides complementary suite of policy actions to enable it...

 

ADB

Urban Systems and Urban Development in the People’s Republic of China, November 2015. The People’s Republic of China (PRC) is experiencing a trend toward population concentration in its large coastal cities. However, at the same time, there is also a distortion of city size toward small cities in the country. That is to say, the urban population in the PRC should further concentrate in large cities rather than be more equally spread out. Cross-country analysis indicates that the population size of the primary city in the PRC is smaller than its predicted value. This paper suggests that the PRC government should adjust its policies on future urbanization for fewer restrictions on the further growth of megacities.

 

ADB

The Role of Community Colleges in Skills Development:Lessons from the Canadian Experience for Developing Asia, Published 2015. The purpose of this book is to describe the Canadian approach to skills development, the success it has achieved, and the implications of this success for policy toward skills development in Asian emerging economies.

 

ADB

International Trade and Determinants of Price Differentials of Insulin Medicine, November 2015. This paper examines the international trade and price of insulin using detailed trade data for 186 importing countries from 1995 to 2013. Empirical studies on pharmaceuticals pricing across countries have found evidence that prices vary according to per capita income. These studies are typically based on survey data from a subset of countries and cover only one year.

 

ADB

The Competitive Saving Motive: Concept, Evidence, and Implications, November 2015. We introduce the concept of competitive saving, i.e., saving to improve one’s status relative to other competitors for dating and marriage partners, and provide evidence of its existence across and within countries. We argue that sex ratio imbalances have driven the competitive saving motive, and have partly accounted for sustained high savings rates in many Asian economies.

 

ADB

Assessing Mandated Credit Programs: Case Study of the Magna Carta in the Philippines, November 2015. Three findings are highlighted. First, although total lending to micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) grew slightly, MSME loan shares declined drastically from 30% in 2002 to 16.4% in 2010. Second, there was a sharp rise in noncompliance after loan targets increased in 2008. Third, there is increased heterogeneity in optimal loan portfolio across banks. Most surprisingly, total MSME lending by rural and cooperative banks declined since 2008. Abolishing Magna Carta target for medium-sized enterprise loans would most likely yield little adverse effects.

 

ADB

Developing Myanmar’s Information and Communication Technology Sector toward Inclusive Growth, November 2015.  This paper assesses Myanmar’s information and communication technology sector, identifies constraints the sector faces, and recommends policies that will help the government overcome them. Given limited public resources, Myanmar will need help translating its information and communication technology infrastructure needs into financially viable and bankable projects that can attract private sector financing.

 

ADB

Two Decades of Rising Inequality and Declining Poverty in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, November 2015. Over the last 2 decades the Gini coefficient for expenditure in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic has risen from 0.311 to 0.364, even though absolute poverty incidence has halved. When the data is decomposed into rural and urban areas, or by the ethnicity of the household head, the increase in inequality within groups dominates any changes between groups; indeed, inequality has increased throughout the country. In contrast, access to publicly provided services has become more equal.

 

ADB

The Asian Currency Unit, Deviation Indicators, and Exchange Rate Coordination in East Asia: A Panel-Based Convergence Approach, October 2015. This paper examines the existence and extent of convergence in the movements of East Asian currencies against the ACU. Empirical results reveal that intra-East Asian exchange rate movements have not converged to form a cohesive, unified bloc where currencies share homogenous movements, regardless of whether one examines the data on intra-East Asian exchange rate movements before or after the collapse of Lehman Brothers in September 2008. Instead, a separate number of convergent clubs or blocs in the region have formed in recent years.

 

ADB

Power Sector Development in Myanmar, October 2015. This paper assesses Myanmar’s electricity sector and recommends several concrete policy options to enable government to address issues such as supply security, greater accessibility, and affordability, especially for the poor and disadvantaged. The paper also estimates infrastructure demand and the corresponding investment requirements to narrow the supply gap in the power sector.

 

ADB

The “Highway Effect” on Public Finance: Case of the STAR Highway in the Philippines, October 2015. In this study, we examine the impact of the STAR highway located in Batangas province, Philippines, on the public finance of the cities and municipalities through which it directly passes. Specifically, we exploit a unique, disaggregated dataset on tax (property and business taxes) as well as non-tax revenues (regulatory fees and user charges) of the cities and municipalities in the Batangas province.

 

ADB

An Impact Evaluation of Investment in Infrastructure: The Case of the Railway Connection in Uzbekistan, October 2015. The objective of this paper is to examine the nature and magnitude of the effects of infrastructure provision on regional economic performance. The empirical evidence of our analysis is based on difference-in-difference estimation linking the changes in the growth rate of regional-level economic outcomes in affected regions to the newly built railway connection in the southern part of Uzbekistan, conditioned on the regions’ time-invariant individual effects, time-varying covariates, and evolving economic characteristics.

 

ADB

Mongolia Reassesses Foreign Policy Strategies After 25 Years of Democracy, November 2015. Alicia Campi, President of the US-Mongolia Advisory Group, explains that “ex-communist Mongolia successfully reinvented itself as a free market, globally connected democratic nation that still has much to offer to its region.”

 

EWC

Implications for Southeast Asia of the New U.S.-Japan Defense Guidelines, November 2015. Bhubhindar Singh, Associate Professor at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies in Singapore, explains that "In light of the rising tensions in the South China Sea, the United States and Japan have strengthened cooperation to maintain regional stability and protect the security and economic interests of the regional states."

 

EWC

PACOM’s Role in Sustaining Indo-Asia-Pacific Security, November 2015. Paul Lushenko, Major in the US Army, and Jon Lushenko, Lieutenant Commander (sel) in the US Navy, explain that "PACOM needs to better resolve the tension between maintaining a credible deterrent and resolving human security challenges to sustain Indo-Asia-Pacific security."

 

EWC

Report on APEC Work on Services and Baseline Indicators, November 2015. The report is organized into three parts: The first part assesses services-related projects and programs across relevant APEC committees and working groups and reflects on how to improve the governance of services work in APEC; the second part proposes various services trade indicators and divides them into two groups – those that provide measurement of services trade in APEC and those that pertain to regulatory conditions that facilitate services trade; and finally, the last part provides some recommendations relating to the governance structure of services in APEC and towards improving services trade indicators so as to facilitate the future review of services.

 

APEC

Assessment of the APEC Leaders’ Growth Strategy, November 2015. The report discusses about the nature of the APEC Leaders’ Growth Strategy; the challenges to assess progress; the existing links among this strategy and other APEC initiatives; and the work reported by APEC committees and sub-fora related to the implementation of this strategy. The report also include specific sections concerning the five growth attributes identified in the APEC Leaders’ Growth Strategy, namely: 1) balanced; 2) inclusive; 3) sustainable (green); 4) innovative; and 5) secure growth.

 

APEC

2015 APEC Economic Policy Report. This 2015 APEC Economic Policy Report (AEPR) on Structural Reform and Innovation explores a question at the heart of this triad: How economies can stimulate innovation through implementing effective structural policies?

 

APEC

Factsheet: 2015 APEC Economic Policy Report. This is a 2 page factsheet of the 2015 APEC Economic Policy Report which focuses on Structural Reform and Innovation.

 

APEC

2015 APEC Economic Policy Report: Executive Summary. This is an executive summary of the 2015 APEC Economic Policy Report which examines the links between structural policy settings and firm-level innovation across APEC member economies of varying levels of development, and explores the ways in which these economies harness the growth potential that innovation can provide through implementation of effective structural policies.

 

APEC

2015 CTI Report to Ministers. The CTI Annual Report to Ministers for 2015 outlines the Committee’s accomplishments and recommendations in the key priority areas of APEC’s Trade and Investment Liberalization and Facilitation (TILF) agenda in support of APEC’s 2015 priorities under the theme of “Building Inclusive
Economies, Building a Better World”.

 

APEC

APEC Senior Officials’ Report on Economic and Technical Cooperation 2015. SCE’s agenda for 2015 dealt with various issues and situations of the fora. SCE reviewed and approved annual workplans and longer term Strategic Plans. The most important achievement was the adoption of APEC Capacity Building Policy. This report serves you as a summary and overview of the activities of SCE and the SCE fora.

 

APEC

Factsheet: 2015 APEC Senior Officials' Report on Economic and Technical Cooperation. This is a 2 page factsheet of the 2015 APEC Senior Officials' Report on Economic and Technical Cooperation.

 

APEC

Guidebook on Trade and Supply Chain Finance, November 2015. The Guidebook describes typical supply chains and which stages need financing and how they are financed. It discusses risks in the supply chains and various mitigation mechanisms whose availability and use depend on the presence of proper regulatory and legal infrastructures as well as the confidence of the market in them. The Guidebook also talks about financial instruments such as warehouse receipts financing, invoice finance, receivables finance, factoring, and forfaiting. Case studies of what had gone wrong in particular actual transactions are presented as examples and provide important insights on regulatory or institutional deficits that need to be bridged

 

APEC

Key Trends and Developments Relating to Trade and Investment Measures and their Impact on the APEC Region, November 2015. This report was presented at the APEC Ministerial Meeting in Manila, Philippines in November 2015. The first section of the report discusses the linkages between trade performance and inclusive growth and examines the role of policy to promote inclusive growth. The second section reports trade and investment trends in the APEC region covering 2014 to the first half of 2015, and lists recent trade and investment policies implemented by member economies.

 

APEC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

November, 2015

 

 

 

 

 

 

Monetary Authority of Singapore: Macroeconomic Review, Volume XIV, Issue 2, October 2015 (Full Report, Presentation Slides for Briefing):  

MAS

Guidance on Anti-Money Laundering and Countering the Financing of Terrorism Controls in Trade Finance and Correspondent Banking, October 2015. In the National Risk Assessment report published in January 2014, MAS had identified the anti-money laundering and countering the financing of terrorism (“AML/CFT”) controls for trade finance and correspondent banking as areas where there could be scope for improvement. Robust controls in these areas enable banks to better prevent and detect the risks associated with trade-based money laundering, proliferation financing and other sanctions compliance related issues. This paper aims to provide banks with guidance on the AML/CFT controls in trade finance and correspondent banking activities, assist them in their benchmarking against industry norms and in the implementation of sound risk management practices, and identification of control gaps...

 

MAS

Direct Life Insurers - Guidance on AML/CFT Controls, May 2015. This paper aims to provide direct life insurers (“insurers”) with guidance on strengthening their controls for preventing money laundering and terrorism financing (“ML/TF”). The observations in this paper were drawn from the Monetary Authority of Singapore (“MAS”)’s review of the anti-money laundering and countering the financing of terrorism (“AML/CFT”) practices of insurers for the period from 2012 to 2014. The review focused on the risk assessment, key controls and customer due diligence processes of insurers for addressing ML/TF risks. Insurers should pay close attention to the sound practices highlighted in this paper and apply them in a risk-based and proportionate manner, taking into account the size, nature and complexity of their business...

 

MAS

2014 Singapore Asset Management Industry Survey, August 2015. Singapore’s assets under management (“AUM”) rose to S$2.4 trillion in 2014, a strong showing of about 30% year-on-year growth. The robust growth was derived largely from positive asset inflows arising from Asia’s growth dynamism and Singapore’s position as a pan-Asian asset management hub. Looking ahead, growth opportunities abound although there are also structural trends that could potentially transform the asset management industry...

 

MAS

APEC Economic Trends Analysis, November 2015.
  • Growth is expected to soften in 2015 and recover in 2016.
  • Growth prospects during the period 2015-2016 will be determined by three major factors: i) persistence of the downward trend of oil and non-oil commodity prices; ii) strength of China’s economy and stability of its markets; and iii) normalization of US monetary policy and its attendant risks.
  • Softening of growth prospects as challenges intensify require a concerted response. In 2015 and beyond, as economies rebalance economic growth towards strengthening domestic demand, they will need to consider implementing an appropriate mix of monetary and fiscal policies together with structural reforms to raise productivity and strengthen private consumption.
 

APEC

Services in Global Value Chains: Manufacturing-Related Services, November 2015. The objective of the study is to collect firm-specific insights on the contribution of manufacturing related services in their supply/value chain operations using a case-study approach. It also analyses how government policies affecting the production and trade of services – such as investment and investment-related policies, taxes and regulations – can have a significant implications on firm’s configuration, operation and location of value chains. During the study, case studies involving 22 firms based in 12 APEC economies were compiled. They cover different sectors ranging from automotive components and mining equipment to electrical appliances and watch.

 

APEC

APEC in Charts 2015. An annual PSU publication, APEC in Charts depicts the region’s economic, trade, investment and policy-related performance through the use of charts.

 

APEC

Regulatory Reform: Case Studies on Improving the Business Environment for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), November 2015. The report includes four case studies evaluate the role of regulatory reforms in creating a proper business environment supporting SMEs. The case studies focus on the following areas: 1) dedicated agencies to assist SMEs with growth, development, compliance and internationalization; 2) agencies and institutions that specialize in supporting SME finance; 3) regulatory tiering; and 4) SME-friendly Regulatory Impact Assessments (RIA)...

 

APEC

Independent Assessment of the Policy Partnership on Science, Technology and Innovation (PPSTI), October 2015. This report contains an independent assessment of the efficiency and effectiveness of APEC’s Policy Partnership on Science, Technology and Innovation (PPSTI).

 

APEC

Assessing the APEC New Strategy for Structural Reform (ANSSR) and Advancing the APEC Structural Reform Agenda Beyond 2015, October 2015. This report reviews the progress of the APEC New Strategy for Structural Reform (ANSSR). It begins with a discussion of the drivers of growth, according to the framework of the debate on middle income trap. This is followed by the outcome of review of the information provided by economies in the ANSSR 2015 templates, a commentary on capacity building, and some notes on the manner of reporting of projects. The final section contains a series of suggestions for consideration in the design of the next phase of the APEC structural reform agenda.

 

APEC

APEC Low-Carbon Model Town Development Model and Toolkit Study, October 2015. The low-carbon cities in the APEC region differentiate from each other in terms ways and focuses of development due to their distinctive natural conditions, economic development, industrial structure and cultural tradition. Drawing from the experiences from all the member economies, this report offers suggestions for the development models and toolkit of low-carbon cities.

 

APEC

Photovoltaic Communication and Cooperation Program, October 2015. Based on analysis and risk assessment of each link related in PV power station investment and construction including resource assessment, key devices selection, engineering construction, power station financing as well as operation and management, this report aims to establish an economic calculation model of PV power station with detailed presentation of its investment and construction process, coming up with a PV power station evaluation model that can be referred to by all APEC economies. Moreover, a communication and cooperation platform is expected to be established so as to provide services for future construction, investment and financing of PV power stations.

 

APEC

APEC Photovoltaic Application Roadmap and Model Study, October 2015. This report aims to bring up discussions on PV power station industry chain, technology application, PV power station accidents and issues and other aspects so as to come up with suitable circuit diagram and development mode for the APEC region.

 

APEC

APEC Photovoltaic System Best Practices and Latest Development Comparative Study, October 2015. The APEC region is where PV manufacturing, application and investment develops at the fastest pace. This report looks at the best practices of the photovoltaic system and the latest development in this area.

 

APEC

Summary Report of The Public Private Dialogue on Renewable and Clean Energy Trade and Investment, October 2015. APEC leadership has put climate mitigation and sustainable development as top priorities in the APEC Leaders' Declaration and Ministerial Meetings. The project aims to help to fulfil the APEC Leaders’ recognition that “…joint research, development, deployment and transfer of technologies will be crucial in our shared efforts to address climate change.”

 

APEC

Best Practices in Investigating and Prosecuting Corruption, September 2015. This handbook was elaborated under the scope of APEC project M SCE 01/12A-1 "Capacity Building Workshops on Designing Best Models on Prosecuting Corruption and Money Laundering Cases Using Financial Flow Tracking Techniques and Investigative Intelligence for Effective Conviction and Asset Recovery to Promote Regional Economic Integration."

 

APEC

New Ways of Thinking About the Global Arms Industry: Dealing with 'Limited Autarky', November 2015. This report attempts to explain why some countries produce arms on a limited scale, and what benefits they hope to accrue from that strategy. Decisions to produce arms—even to engage in niche production—need to be continually evaluated and re-evaluated for their costs and benefits. Even if a nation only wants to pursue limited self-sufficiency, that can still be a high-risk, low-reward undertaking...

 

ASPI

ADF Capability Snapshot 2015: Part 1-RAAF, November 2015. This paper reviews the capability of the RAAF, and concludes that the service has been remarkably successful in winning government support for its acquisitions. More importantly, the money has turned into real capability. There are a couple of areas where more work is required, the most important of those being anti-submarine warfare.

 

ASPI

Cyber Maturity in the Asia-Pacific Region 2015. The second edition of the International Cyber Policy Centre’s annual Cyber Maturity in the Asia Pacific is the culmination of 12 months research and analysis delving into the cyber maturity of 20 countries within our region. It is a usable, quick-reference resource for those in government, business, academia, and the wider cyber community who are looking to make considered, evidence-based cyber policy judgements in the Asia-Pacific. It provides a depth of information and analysis that builds a deeper understanding of regional countries’ whole of nation approach to cyber policy, crime, and security issues, and identifies potential opportunities for engagement...

 

ASPI

Methamphetamine: Focusing Australia's National Ice Strategy on the Problem, Not the Symptoms, October 2015. In this report, law enforcement isn't focused on arrests, prosecutions, custodial offences or seizures, as none of those will have a guaranteed impact on the problem. The focus is on means to reduce the availability of drugs, the disruption of user behaviour and the integration of education and health initiatives...

 

ASPI

Looking for Leadership in the Arab Middle East, October 2015. The Middle East is in an unprecedented state of flux. It is beset by a number of major security crises, from North Africa to the Arabian Peninsula. The Obama administration has signalled that it will limit America’s role in addressing these crises and that it expects its regional allies to do more of the heavy lifting themselves. Sunni states fear that Tehran is capitalising on both regional unrest and Washington’s recalibration of its policy in the Middle East to expand its influence and they fear Tehran’s position will further improve once sanctions on Iran are lifted...

 

Lowy

Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2015 (Highlights, and Full Report):
  • Part I: A Smarter Future: Skills, Education, and Growth in Asia
  • Part II: Millennium Development Goals Trends and Tables
  • Part III: Regional Trends and Tables
  • Part IV: Global Value Chains: Indicators for International Production Sharing

Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2015 covers 48 economies: Afghanistan, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China, Cook Islands, Fiji Islands, Georgia, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, Republic of Korea, Kyrgyz Republic, Lao, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nauru, Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Taipei, Tajikistan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, and Viet Nam.

 

ADB

China's Hidden Obstacles to Socioeconomic Rebalancing, October 2015. The global financial crisis of 2008-09 led to a policy consensus in China that its socioeconomic development model needed rebalancing. China's rapid development has been based on extensive growth reliant on exports, low wages, environmental exploitation, and the manufacturing of cheap products. China's current plans identify paths to economic rebalancing through intensive growth driven by rising investment in new technologies and manufacturing processes, improved wages and skills, and improved worker and environmental protections...

 

EWC

India-Japan-U.S. Trilateral Dialogue Gains Additional Traction, October 2015. Rajeswari Pillai Rajagopalan and Sylvia Mishra, Senior and Junior Fellows at the Observer Research Foundation, respectively, explain that "The growing convergence of regional and global interests of the U.S., Japan, and India on issues such as Indian Ocean and the evolving Asian security order is clearly driving the trilateral dialogue."

 

EWC

Sino-Myanmar Relations in Myanmar’s Election Year, October 2015. Yun Sun, Senior Associate at the Henry L. Stimson Center, explains that "While China is generally confident that no president of Myanmar will pursue a hostile policy toward China or completely ignore China's preferences, it also recognizes that his/her foreign policy will have major influence over China's interests."

 

EWC

President Park’s Visits to Beijing and Washington and Implications for Inter-Korean Relations, October 2015. Eunjung Lim, lecturer at Johns Hopkins University, explains that "The appearance of President Park, democratically elected head of American ally South Korea, watching an extravagant Chinese military parade that gave the image of targeting the US was perplexing and even frustrating to many Americans."

 

EWC

AICHR in October 2015 – Change or Continuity in the Diplomatic Club? October 2015. Naila Maier-Knapp, author of Southeast Asia and the European Union, explains that "because ASEAN governments have built trust towards the ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights' opportunity to showcase their commitment to people-orientation, space for human rights discourse could increase in the years to come."

 

EWC

Realist Indonesia's Drift Away from ASEAN, September 2015. Vibhanshu Shekhar, Visiting Fellow at the East-West Center in Washington, explains that "The Indonesian leadership views ASEAN as too small, weak, and disunited to adequately represent the country's national interests in the Indo-Pacific region…[leading] to an increasingly marginal position of ASEAN in Jakarta's regional diplomacy."

 

EWC

Cambodia’s Special Economic Zones, October 2015. This study examines the role of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) in Cambodia, and finds that the SEZs have attracted significant levels of foreign investment that would not have been present otherwise. These investments have created around 68,000 jobs, with equal or better pay and better prospects than the alternatives. By leaving it to the private sector, Cambodia has avoided the large and sometimes wasteful public sector set-up costs associated with SEZ establishment in many other countries.

 

ADB

What Accounts for the Growth of Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Advanced and Emerging Economies? The Role of Consumption, Technology, and Global Supply Chain Trade, October 2015. This paper examines the changes in territorial carbon dioxide emissions due to changes in energy intensity within global production networks, supply chain participation, and domestic and foreign consumption. It finds that a substantial share of emissions growth in emerging economies is explained by higher participation in global production networks that serve expanding foreign consumption. However, even for countries that most rapidly integrated in global production networks, such as the People’s Republic of China, rising domestic consumption accounts for the bulk of territorial emissions. Improved energy efficiency partially stemmed the spike in emissions from higher consumer demand.

 

ADB

The Impact of Financial Factors on the Output Gap and Estimates of Potential Output Growth, October 2015. The authors examine the impact of financial factors on estimates of the output gap and potential output growth for the G-5 and 10 high- and middle-income Asian economies. Using a state-space model of the output gap with exogenously determined financial factors as regressors, they employ Bayesian methods to estimate the model parameters, and subsequently employ the Kalman filter to obtain estimates of potential output and potential output growth. They find that financial factors have positive and statistically significant effects on the output gap of the G-5 and high-income economies in Asia, but do not affect those of middle-income Asian economies. By accounting for the effects of financial factors on the output gap, the authors obtain finance-neutral estimates of potential output growth.

 

ADB

A Darwinian Perspective on “Exchange Rate Undervaluation”, October 2015. The paper provides both a theory and evidence that status competition in the marriage market can affect the real exchange rate. In theory, this happens through a combination of a savings channel and a labor supply channel. Suggestive evidence from both a cross-country analysis and with the People’s Republic of China is presented.

 

ADB

The SelectIon of Trade Integration Indicators: Intraregional Share, Intensity, Homogeneous Intensity, and Introversion Index, October 2015. The paper reviews four types of indicators (share, intensity, homogeneous intensity, and introversion index) and argues that the introversion index is the most suitable indicator for the comparison of the level of trade integration, both in terms of cross-regional comparisons and time series analyses.

 

ADB

Climate Change, Food Security, and Socioeconomic Livelihood in Pacific Islands, Published 2015. Fiji, Papua New Guinea, and Solomon Islands need to invest in the agriculture and fisheries sectors to improve their ability to combat the detrimental effects of climate change on food security and poverty. The results of the study indicate that climate change will likely have significant negative impacts on agricultural output in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, and Solomon Islands. Even relatively positive projections suggest that the fishery sector of the three study countries cannot be relied upon to counterbalance the food security challenges brought about losses in agricultural output...

 

ADB

Pacific Trade: Dynamics in a High-Cost Region, October 2015. Key Points: Trade costs are falling, but remain high, which constrains SME growth; Niche product exports have socioeconomic spillovers by capturing both value and community; E-commerce leapfrogs the cost of distance; Women-led firms thrive online; Trade with Asia is on the rise among Pacific export.

 

ADB

A Framework of Trade Policy for Bhutan: Compatible with the Gross National Happiness, September 2015. One of the most urgent tasks facing Bhutan is to raise general living standards. But is the open trade policy needed to grow the economy compatible with the country's gross national happiness guidelines? The paper explores trade and industry policy that is compatible with the gross national happiness guidelines. It also points out that the structure of the Government of Bhutan is seemingly less oriented to trade policy than its neighbors, and suggests a new organization for promoting a more active and open trade policy.

 

ADB

Bhutan’s Indian Rupee Shortage: Macroeconomic Causes and Cures, September 2015. With over 74% of Bhutan’s trade taking place with India, ample holdings of Indian rupee reserves are critical for trade. In 2011, pressures on rupee holdings extended to levels unable to be matched by official rupee holdings, resulting in liquidity or rupee crisis. This paper analyzes the causes and cures of the Indian rupee crisis and finds that excessive monetary growth, inflation differentials between India and Bhutan, and terms of trade imbalances were key factors in the Bhutanese liquidity crisis. It also provides recommendations for the ongoing management of rupee reserve holdings.

 

ADB

Sustainable Energy for All: Tracking Progress in Asia and the Pacific - A Summary Report, Published 2015. Asia and the Pacific economies are on track in meeting the goal of sustainable energy for all (SE4All), but whether the pace is sufficient to reach the SE4All targets by 2030 remains to be seen. This first attempt of the SE4All Asia-Pacific Regional Hub to monitor the performance of Asia and the Pacific revealed progress in achieving the objectives of universal energy access and improved energy efficiency...

 

ADB

Review and Assessment of Programs Offered by State Universities and Colleges, Published 2015. The state universities and colleges (SUCs) in the Philippines have always been a major issue mainly because of the poor quality of education that most of them offer, the undeveloped management and financial systems, and the inequality of access...

 

PIDS

Promoting Inclusive Growth through the 4Ps, Published 2015. The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) of the Philippines marks its fifth year of implementation in 2013 since its inception in 2008. The first batch of 4Ps beneficiaries will graduate from the program in several months while the government continues to expand its implementation, devising along the way several variants that it deems necessary to address the many facets of poverty...

 

PIDS

Bottom-up Budgeting: People's Participation at Work, July 2015. As part of the government's effort to pursue sustained and inclusive growth and, at the same time, promote good governance at the local level, the Bottom-up Budgeting (BUB) exercise--also called the Grassroots Participatory Budgeting (GPB) process--was initiated in 2012. It is a reform measure that aims to make the national budget a participatory process...

 

PIDS

Philippine Institute for Development Studies - Policy Notes:  

PIDS

Philippine Institute for Development Studies - Development Research News:  

PIDS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

  

 
 

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