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We index full-text journals with open access platforms in our NEW Asia-Studies Full-Text Plus section. Here is the list of journals available.

 
 

 

 
 

 

 
 

 

 
 

February, 2015 Current Topics

 

Source

 

 

 

 

Towards "Trade Policy Analysis 2.0": From National Comparative Advantage to Firm-Level Trade Data, February 2015. This paper makes the case for the need to "upgrade" current analytical tools used for trade policy analysis and complement them with more detailed firm-level data. Such an upgrade should be based on the latest intellectual advancements in trade theories and the latest firm-level trade statistics that are now becoming widely available. An upgraded "Trade Policy Analysis 2.0" could contribute to several trade policy priorities and to a better understanding of the benefits from international trade for firm competitiveness, job creation, and consumer welfare.

 

ADB

SME Internationalization through Global Value Chains and Free Trade Agreements: Malaysian Evidence, February 2015. Growing internationalization of firms in Asia through participation in global value chains (GVCs) and free trade agreements (FTAs) has focused attention on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Yet there is scant literature on the characteristics of SMEs involved in GVCs and FTAs. Malaysia is reputed for its engagement in GVCs and is actively pursuing FTAs. Drawing on a survey of Malaysian enterprises, this paper examines the characteristics of SMEs in GVCs and FTAs and explores the policy implications. It finds that even among SMEs, firm size matters for participation in GVCs and FTAs...

 

ADB

Dynamic Shift to a Basket-Peg or Floating Regime in East Asian Countries in Response to the People's Republic of China's Transition to a New Exchange Rate Regime, February 2015. This paper analyzes a desirable transition path for East Asian countries given the People's Republic of China's (PRC's) transition to a new exchange rate regime. It attempts to answer two main questions: (i) Would these countries be better off shifting to either a basket peg or a floating regime following the PRC's transition to a basket peg regime? (ii) How and when should these countries shift to the desired regime...

 

ADB

Trilemma Challenges for the People's Republic of China, February 2015. This paper first reviews recent developments in exchange rate regimes, capital account liberalization, interest rate liberalization, and monetary policymaking in the People's Republic of China (PRC). It then observes that the PRC's monetary policy autonomy may have been reduced with falling capital control effectiveness and a rigid exchange regime that is still tightly managed against the United States (US) dollar...

 

ADB

Financial Inclusion, Poverty, and Income Inequality in Developing Asia, January 2015. This paper presents a broad-based financial inclusion indicator to assess various macroeconomic and country-specific factors affecting the degree of financial inclusion for 37 selected developing Asian economies. Using the newly constructed financial inclusion indicator, this paper finds that per capita income, rule of law, and demographic structure are highly correlated with financial inclusion. Empirical findings also show that financial inclusion is significantly associated with lower poverty and income inequality in the region.

 

ADB

MAS Survey of Professional Forecasters, December 2014. The MAS Survey of Professional Forecasters provides a summary of forecasts of Singapore's key economic indicators by economists and analysts. The survey is conducted quarterly following the release of economic data for the previous quarter by the Ministry of Trade and Industry.

 

MAS

MAS Financial Stability Review, November 2014. The Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) conducts regular assessments of risks and vulnerabilities arising from developments in Singapore and the global economy, and assesses their implications for the soundness and stability of Singapore’s financial system. The analyses and results are contained in the Financial Stability Review (FSR), which aims to contribute to a greater understanding among market participants, analysts and the public on issues affecting Singapore's financial system.

 

MAS

Hong Kong: High Frequency Macroeconomic Forecasts Current Quarter Model: 2015Q1, January 2015. According to its High Frequency Macroeconomic Forecast, real GDP in 14Q4 is estimated to grow by 2.5% when compared with the same period in 2013. This is an upward revision from the previous forecast release of 2.1%. This revision reflects the stronger-than-expected private consumption. In 15Q1, real GDP growth is forecast to be 2.4% when compared with the same period last year...

 

HKU

Trends in Southeast Asia 2015 #01: China's Quest for Energy in Southeast Asia: Impact and Implications. Energy cooperation between China and ASEAN countries since its initiation in the late 1970s has been viewed as an important part of China-ASEAN relations. As China expanded its FDI to Southeast Asia after the global financial crisis in 2008, cooperation in this field developed to a new level, extending from energy trade to energy resource exploration and related infrastructure-building. However, while some momentum exists towards continued cooperation, several factors are pushing the region towards competition and conflicts...

 

ISEAS

Jordan's Youth after the Arab Spring, February 2015. Despite the lack of a full-scale uprising, protests in Jordan and unrest across the Arab world convinced Jordan’s King Abdullah to announce a series of political reforms. Yet while the result of these reforms has been underwhelming, popular and youth pressure for change since November 2012 has declined. In particular, youth activists in Jordan have stepped back from public demonstrations demanding broad socio-political change. Observing the disastrous aftermath of the Arab Spring in Syria and Egypt in particular, Jordanian youth are caught between a desire for political reform and a fear of instability...

 

Lowy

International Journal of Korean Studies, Volume XVIII, No. 1, 2014  

IJKS

Why Australia Should Build Its Own Submarines, January 2015. This paper considers the design and build of Australia’s future submarine including the possible acquisition of Japanese submarines by Australia to replace the Collins class and a hybrid approach of constructing the hull modules in Japan and assembling them here. It provides lessons learned from the Collins project...

 

ASPI

Powering Paradises: Recommendations for the Hawai'i-Okinawa Clean Energy Initiative, January 2015. Aiko Shimizu, Visiting Fellow at the East-West Center in Washington, explains that "Effectively utilizing the Hawai'i-Okinawa Clean Energy Initiative could simultaneously address major economic development and energy security issues in both Japan and the U.S. while improving the two countries' national security cooperation and promoting soft power."

 

EWC

Malaysia's ASEAN Chairmanship in 2015: Perspectives and Prospects, January 2015. JBenjamin Ho, Bhubhindar Singh, and Sarah Teo, at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS) in Singapore, explain that "As the ASEAN chair in a crucial year for the Association, Malaysia will need to manage two issues deemed important to the region—the territorial disputes in the South China Sea and ASEAN community building."

 

EWC

Changing Patterns of Food Consumption in Sri Lanka: 1985-2009, Published 2015. This paper examines the patterns of food consumption in Sri Lanka from 1985 to 2009 using the food disappearance data published by the Food and Agriculture Organization. Trends in per capita daily calorie, protein and fat supply have been examined. The study finds that grain food proucts are the main source of calories and protein, while fat-calories were mainly sourced from non-grain vegetable products and animal food products...

 

ASARC

Panchayats and Household Vulnerability in Rural India, Published 2014. India, particularly rural India, has been home to entrenched poverty for long. It is, therefore, imperative to understand people’s vulnerability to poverty. Further, since the Government of India has invested considerable human and financial resources in Gram Panchayats it is important to understand to what extent these Panchayats have been successful in redressing vulnerability, especially since we establish that1 ex-ante vulnerability has a significant effect on ex post poverty dynamics...

 

ASARC

APEC Outcomes & Outlook 2014/2015. 2015 is the year where APEC meets under the theme “Building Inclusive Economies, Building a Better World”. APEC 2015 will focus on four key priorities: Enhancing the Regional Economic Integration Agenda, Fostering Small and Medium Enterprises’ Participation in Regional and Global Markets, Investing in Human Capital Development and Building Sustainable and Resilient Communities. This publication also looks back at the outcomes of APEC China 2014 and the 22nd APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting in Beijing, China.

 

APEC

APEC Policy Support Unit, January 2015. This is a handy publication which lists the APEC Policy Support Unit's goals, focus areas, governance structure, and modus operandi.

 

APEC

Services, Manufacturing and Productivity, January 2015. This issues paper tries to tease out more detailed information from the WTO-OECD Trade in Value Added (TiVA) database to understand how important services is in APEC economies by analyzing quantitatively the various aspects through which services could contribute to their economies’ exports such as via direct exports as well as indirectly via manufacturing or other services sectors’ exports. Specifically on services’ role in manufacturing, the paper attempts to explore the link between services and manufacturing productivity...

 

APEC

APEC Connectivity Blueprint, Published 2014. This publication combines the two key documents relating to the APEC Connectivity Blueprint, namely:

  • APEC Connectivity Blueprint 2015-2025, which APEC Leaders endorsed during their annual meeting in Beijing in November 2014, and

  • The Report to Implement the APEC Connectivity Blueprint, a document prepared to support the blueprint’s implementation

 

APEC

Final Report: Low Carbon Model Town (LCMT) Project Phase 4 Feasibility Study, December 2014. This Feasibility Study completes the fourth phase of the APEC's Low Carbon Model Town (LCMT) Project. The goal of this study is to provide government officials at the local, provincial, and national levels and stakeholders in San Borja with actionable advice to support their existing plans and initiatives to design, develop and implement a low carbon development path that produces repeatable results and measurable outcomes for San Borja.

 

APEC

Establishing Best Practices on Human Capital Development to Enhance Productivity, Quality, Competitiveness and Innovation among SMEs in Korea, Malaysia, The Philippines and Chinese Taipei, November 2014. This report on “Establishing Best Practices on Human Capital Development to Enhance Productivity, Quality, Competitiveness and Innovation among SMEs is a compilation of experiences on human resource practices from four APEC member economies namely, Korea, Malaysia, The Philippines and Chinese Taipei.

 

APEC

Promoting Infrastructure Investment in APEC Region through Public-Private Partnerships, August 2014. This publication, entitled “Promoting Infrastructure Investment in the APEC Region through Public-Private Partnership” is a research report on the 2014 APEC Investment Experts' Group Public-Private Dialogue held in Beijing, China.

 

APEC

The End of the Postwar? The Abe Government, Okinawa, and Yonaguni Island, December 2014. Yet this paper suggests that all – from one small Okinawan island to the Japanese nation state and the US-Japan relationship – may profitably be considered within a single frame. It rests on the premise that it is profoundly mistaken to think in terms of the “Okinawa Problem” (and “Yonaguni problem”) as distinct, self-contained and therefore relatively minor in significance...

 

APJ

The Secret History of Cannabis in Japan, December 2014. Today Japan has some of the strictest anti-cannabis laws in the world. Punishment for possession is a maximum 5 years behind bars and illicit growers face 7-year sentences. Annually around 2000 people fall foul of these laws - their names splashed on the nightly news and their careers ruined forever. The same prohibition that dishes out these punishments also bans research into medical marijuana, forcing Japanese scientists overseas to conduct their studies.

 

APJ

Japan's Radical Energy Technocrats: Structural Reform Through Smart Communities, the Feed-in Tariff and Japanese-Style “Stadtwerke”, December 2014. Japan’s December 14 general election is essentially a rigged referendum on Abenomics. Despite the dismal economic news, team Abe can hardly lose against the splintered and poorly led opposition parties at the national level. The hapless Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) seems likely to gain some seats; but Abe has defined defeat as the loss of his parliamentary majority, which is simply not going to happen...

 

APJ

MSG Headache, West Papuan Heartache? Indonesia's Melanesian Foray, November 2014. Asia and the Pacific—these two geographic, political and cultural regions encompass entire life-worlds, cosmologies and cultures. Yet Indonesia’s recent enthusiastic outreach to Melanesia indicates an attempt to bridge both the constructed and actual distinctions between them. While the label ‘Asia-Pacific’ may accurately capture Indonesia’s aspirational sphere of influence, it is simultaneously one that many Pacific scholars have resisted, fearing that the cultures and interests of the Pacific are threatened by the hyphen...

 

APJ

Beyond Reality - or - an Illusory Ideal: Pro-Nuclear Japan's Management of Migratory Flows in a Nuclear Catastrophe, November 2014. Three years have passed since the earthquake and consequent tsunami of March 11, 2011, which led to the explosion of a nuclear power plant in Northeastern Japan. Since then, a central concern in managing the damage is how to handle the relocation of people displaced by the destruction of the earthquake-driven tsunami and the dangers of radiation. In December of that year, we wrote up a precise assessment of the damage caused to the housing sector, the system for rehousing victims of the tsunami, and also the nuclear contamination that has spread widely in part of the Fukushima region and neighboring districts...

 

APJ

Gender Equality in Japan: The Equal Employment Opportunity Law Revisited, November 2014. In 2010, Rina Bovrisse, then a 36-year old senior retail manager of Prada Japan, lost her job at the Italian fashion company after she accused the company of harassment and discrimination based on age and physical appearance. After a two-year trial in the Tokyo District Court which ended in October 2012, she also lost her claim to financial compensation of 58 million yen on the grounds of sexual harassment (Asien Spiegel, 2013)...

 

APJ

Transforming Mongolia-Russia-China Relations: The Dushanbe Trilateral Summit, November 2014. The trilateral summit among the presidents of Mongolia, China, and Russia, on the sidelines of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) at Dushanbe, Tajikistan on September 11, 2014, was the culmination of a deliberate summer whirlwind policy blitz of Mongolian President Tsakhia Elbegdorj to position his country to take advantage of deepening Sino-Russian economic relations. Concerned that a “great game” to create a new version of the Eurasian Silk Road was being played out without any Mongolian input...

 

APJ

Martial Law and the Criminalization of Thought in Thailand, October 2014. At 5.30 pm on 17 September 2014, police and soldiers interrupted a lecture on the topic of “Democracy Classroom #2: The Decline of Dictatorship in Other Countries” at Thammasat University in Bangkok. The officials went up to Professor Nidhi Eoseewong, the noted historian and public intellectual who was speaking, and told him to stop and come with them. Three additional scholars (Prajak Kongkirati, Janjira Sombutpoonsiri, and Chaowarit Chaowsangrat) and three student activists from the League of Liberal Thammasat for Democracy (LLTD), which had organized the event, were also arrested...

 

APJ

"Fieldwork" North Korea: Observations of Daily Life on the Ground inside the Country, October 2014. This paper uses observations collected “on the ground” inside North Korea to argue that everyday life matters when researching North Korea and that one method of carrying out such research is to travel there as a tourist...

 

APJ

The Failure of the South Korean National Security State: The Sewol Tragedy in the Age of Neoliberalism, October 2014. The Sewol ferry carrying 476 passengers including a group of high school students on a field trip to Jeju Island capsized on April 16, 2014, and sank to the bottom of the sea off Korea’s southern coast. Most of the crew, including the captain, were rescued by the Korean coast guard. Some of the passengers, who happened to be on the deck or escaped soon after the capsizing, were saved by fishing boats and commercial vessels that came before the ROK Coast Guard or Navy. 304 passengers, however, were trapped inside and drowned...

 

APJ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Janaury, 2015

 

 

 

 

 

 

International Spillovers of Monetary Policy: US Federal Reserve's Quantitative Easing and Bank of Japan's Quantitative and Qualitative Easing, January 2015. This paper assesses the impact of unconventional United States (US) and Japanese monetary policies on emerging economies, and explores policy coordination issues to promote macroeconomic and financial stability in developed and emerging economies. The paper first considers a theoretical framework that allows us to analyze the impact of one country's monetary policy on other economies. There are two important theoretical predictions. One is that the greater the positive impact of monetary policy easing on a country's real output, the less its beggar-thy-neighbor impact on other countries...

 

ADB

The Impacts of Infrastructure in Development: A Selective Survey, January 2015. Development economists have considered physical infrastructure to be a precondition for industrialization and economic development. Yet, two issues remain to be addressed in the literature. First, while proper identification of the causal effectiveness of infrastructure in reducing poverty is important, experimental evaluation, such as randomized control trials (RCT)-based evaluation, is difficult in the context of large-scale infrastructure...

 

ADB

Rivalry and Cooperation: A New "Great Game" in Myanmar, December 2014. Myanmar since its reform and opening up has become the locus for a new "Great Game" between the world's major powers. This brings with it new challenges for China which has hitherto been the preeminent actor in Myanmar. In response China must further bolster its relations with Myanmar and exploit the divided interests of external powers. At the same time, it must also simultaneously engage in bilateral and multilateral cooperation with other powers to ensure win-win gains. Helping Myanmar achieve political stability, economic development, and social progress should be central to any cooperation. This paper accordingly provides a Chinese perspective of where Myanmar stands on the geopolitical chessboard of the twenty-first century.

 

ISDP

China's Military Reform: Prospects and Challenges, September 2014. This paper examines the military reform thought of China's new collective leadership under Chairman Xi Jinping. The goal of reform is to modernize the military organizational structure by, among other measures, optimizing its structure, promoting a joint operational command system, and improving the coordinated development of both civilian and military sectors. The paper considers the main drivers necessitating military reform before arguing that China faces considerable challenges along the reform path - not least vested interests and outdated concepts - which will have to be overcome.

 

ISDP

Looking Forward: Kazakhstan and the United States, September 2014. Notwithstanding Kazakhstan’s entrance into the Eurasian Economic Union and a growing perception of American disengagement from Central Asia, the major finding of this report is that the strategic objectives of the Republic of Kazakhstan and of the United States today are mutually compatible and even mutually reinforcing. Indeed, each country needs the other in fulfilling its goals. Therefore, this paper argues that, to the greatest extent possible, both sides focus their energies with respect to the other on advancing these commonalities...

 

ISDP

Toward the Transformation of PLA Military Training under Conditions of Informationization, August 2014. In the information era, promoting the transformation from training under conditions of mechanization to training under conditions of informationization is an ongoing and deep evolution in the field of the PLA’s military training. This paper accordingly analyzes the evolution, context, and contents of the PLA's training transformation in the twenty-first century.

 

ISDP

Why Do SMEs Not Borrow More from Banks? Evidence from the People's Republic of China and Southeast Asia, January 2015. This study examines the relationship between firm characteristics and borrowing from commercial banks by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the People's Republic of China (PRC) and five Southeast Asian economies (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Viet Nam). Analysis of microdata from enterprise surveys highlights key aspects of SME finance since the global financial crisis, including sources of credit, lender types, and collateral types...

 

ADB

Estimating Dual Deposit Insurance Premium Rates and Forecasting Non-performing Loans: Two New Models, January 2015. Risky banks that endanger the stability of the financial system should pay higher deposit insurance premiums than healthy banks and other financial institutions that have shown good financial performance. It is necessary, therefore, to have at least a dual fair premium rate system...

 

ADB

Background Paper: Research and Development and Extension Services in Agriculture and Food Security, December 2014.
The recent global food crisis exposed the vulnerability of food supply systems, reversed many past achievements in the fight against hunger and malnutrition, and demonstrated the need for continued innovation. In view of the emerging economic, climatic, and political scenarios in the region, this paper explores the role of applied research for development and extension services through the two-pronged approach of boosting food production and preventing losses...

 

ADB

Is India's Long-Term Trend Growth Declining? December 2014.
The recent decline in GDP growth in India raised a debate about whether it is a trend or a business cycle slowdown. The paper finds that the recent growth decline in India has elements of a business cycle and a trend slowdown. The paper observed a cyclical downturn post-global financial crisis due to external and domestic conditions, and that the economy also witnessed a negative shock to trend caused by policy uncertainty...

 

ADB

Fiscal Policy for Inclusive Growth: An Overview, December 2014.
Sustained rapid growth during the past few decades has sharply lifted general living standards across Asia. However, inequality has risen in the region alongside rapid economic growth. The paper argues that rising inequality in developing Asia strengthens the case for a government response, and fiscal policy is one of the most suitable policy instruments to promote a more equitable society that provides opportunities for all. The region has trailed other parts of the world in equity-promoting fiscal expenditures, namely education, health care, and social protection, and thus the region needs to do more...

 

ADB

Fiscal Policy and Inclusive Growth in Advanced Countries: Their Experience and Implications for Asia, December 2014.
As developing Asia explores the more active use of fiscal policy for inclusive purposes, it can learn from the experiences of advanced countries, which suggest that fiscal policy can have a significant effect on inequality. This study seeks to draw relevant lessons from the advanced economies for developing Asia in using fiscal policy to tackle inequality. The experience of the advanced economies clearly shows the sizable equity-promoting potential of fiscal policy. At the same time, developing Asia’s pursuit of more inclusive fiscal policy must not come at the expense of economic growth or fiscal sustainability.

 

ADB

Trans-Pacific Partnership versus Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership: Control of Membership and Agenda Setting, December 2014. This paper argues that the formation of regional integration frameworks can be best understood as a dominant state’s attempt to create a preferred regional framework in which it can exercise exclusive influence. In this context, it is important to observe not only which countries are included in a regional framework, but also which countries are excluded from it. For example, the distinct feature of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is its exclusion of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), and that of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) is its exclusion of the United States...

 

ADB

The ASEAN Economy in the Regional Context: Opportunities, Challenges, and Policy Options, December 2014. This paper suggests that ASEAN needs an ambitious plan for economic integration beyond the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) to achieve its economic development aspirations. As ASEAN designs its post-2015 agenda with a view to strengthening its role as a hub of Asian dynamism, its members need to adopt an appropriate policy mix including deep domestic structural reforms and bold actions to further deepen regional integration—transforming the AEC into a truly borderless economic community...

 

ADB

Hmong Studies Journal, Vol. 15, Issues 1 & 2, 2014  

HSJ

India's New Asia-Pacific Strategy: Modi Acts East, December 2014. The ‘Look East’ policy has been a major part of India’s international engagement since its economic opening in 1991. Having received bipartisan support from successive Indian governments, the policy has evolved from economic and diplomatic engagement with Southeast Asia to broader security and defence ties across the whole Asia-Pacific. In recent years, India has signalled a willingness to play a greater strategic role in the region, deepening links with such partners as Japan, Vietnam, and Australia. The policy has been driven in part by India’s strategy of external balancing against China, but has also been motivated by India’s desire for a greater global role and its rise as a trading nation...

 

Lowy

China's Unpredictable Maritime Security Actor, December 2014. The In this Report, Lowy Institute Nonresident Fellow Linda Jakobson argues that despite Chinese president Xi Jinping’s image as a strongman, China’s approach to maritime security will continue to be shaped by a diverse set of actors pushing their own agendas. Consequently, China’s behaviour will be unpredictable. These actors are taking advantage of Xi’s very broad guidelines, the present nationalistic atmosphere, and fractured authority within China’s decision-making processes to push for maritime policies that benefit them commercially and politically...

 

Lowy

Are We a Top 20 Nation or a Middle Power? Views on Australia's Position in the World, December 2014. Nothing fans the flames of a debate on The Strategist quite like a post that makes assertions about Australia’s place in the world and the role it should have on the international stage. ASPI director Peter Jennings’ recent post on Australia as a ‘top 20’ defence player and deputy director Anthony Bergin’s post on the ‘middle power label’ last year both sparked debates about Australia’s power, position and influence and how it could or should be using it...

 

ASPI

Strike from the Air: The First 100 Days of the Campaign against ISIL, December 2014. This report is the first publication from a continuing, open-source study of the coalition campaign against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). With Australian blood and treasure committed to the efforts of the coalition, it is important for ASPI to provide research and constructive commentary on the campaign...

 

ASPI

Eyes on the Prize? The Philippines-US Alliance and Defense Modernization, December 2014. Julio S. Amador III, Deputy Director-General of the Foreign Service Institute of the Philippines, explains that "The Philippines must not lose sight of the fact that the goal is to achieve credible defense and a sustainable modern military at par with its regional neighbors in ASEAN."

 

EWC

Mongolian Participation in an Upgraded Eurasian Energy and Transport Grid, December 2014. Alicia Campi, President of the US-Mongolia Advisory Group, explains that "[Mongolia] needs to expand transport infrastructure for its rich minerals to reach new Asian trade partners, so it is pursuing its own long-range strategy, to maximize benefit from and minimize the dangers of rapprochement between its two giant neighbors."

 

EWC

The United States: Still Singapore's Indispensable Partner? December 2014. See Seng Tan, Deputy Director of the Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies in Singapore, explains that "despite Singapore's proclivity to hedge, the United States remains the city-state's default security choice should things go horribly wrong and well beyond the ability of Singapore's armed forces to manage."

 

EWC

Time to Get Serious about Regional Institution-Building in Asia, December 2014. Kuniko Ashizawa, Adjunct Professor in the School of International Service at American University, explains that "Strong and inclusive regional institutions are key to a stable Asia, which Washington, in the face of multiple challenges across the globe, now desperately needs."

 

EWC

Australia and the Importance of Being Global, December 2014. Andrew O’Neil, Head of the School of Government at Griffith University, Australia, explains that "Australia has no choice but to be globally engaged in order to safeguard its national interests in the long term and achieve the external recognition it desires on the world stage."

 

EWC

China's Grand Strategy is not Absent, Just Contradictory, December 2014. Denny Roy, Senior Fellow at the East-West Center, explains that "Most Chinese do not now aspire to superpower status, not wishing for themselves the difficulties they see beset an America that tries to be the world's fire brigade and police force."

 

EWC

Seaborne Trade between South Asia and Southeast Asia, December 2014. This paper examines the seaports responsible for handling the majority of trade around the Bay of Bengal and identifies the projects that will enable trade and contribute to improving maritime infrastructure. It reviews the nature, potential evolution, and primary types of maritime trade around the bay, and analyzes the ships carrying that trade. It also reviews the potential changes that would have a significant impact on trade patterns, with special consideration of the Indian East Coast Corridor study...

 

ADB

India's Emerging Connectivity with Southeast Asia: Progress and Prospects, December 2014. This paper presents India's broad proposals on connectivity projects with Southeast Asia and policy recommendations to strengthen connectivity throughout Asia, in particular between India and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Enhancing connectivity between South and Southeast Asia is a multifaceted task that will require the implementation of strong policy initiatives. Development of connectivity in Southeast Asia and South Asia will bring significant opportunities for industrial development in India and trade potential with South and East Asian countries...

 

ADB

Myanmar: The Key Link between South Asia and Southeast Asia, December 2014. This paper examines the road and railway links in Myanmar connecting northeast India on the one side with the rest of Southeast Asia on the other. It also discusses the importance of new deep-sea ports in creating alternative shipping routes, essential for Myanmar's international links. It also reviews the country's external trade patterns, and analyzes issues related to trade facilitation, exchange rate policy, financial sector reform, and private sector development...

 

ADB

Assessment of Verification Testing Capacity in the APEC Region and Identification of Cost Effective Options for Collaboration, November 2014. This project continues an earlier (2012) APEC program Survey of Market Compliance Mechanisms for Energy Efficiency Programs in APEC Economies. It supports the development of successful market surveillance Monitoring, Verification and Enforcement (MV&E) regimes for the implementation of Standards and Labeling (S&L) policies in the APEC economies. MV&E is important since it plays an essential role in ensuring that the intended energy savings delivered by S&L are achieved.

 

APEC

APEC Low Carbon Model Town (LCMT) Promotion through Eco-Point Program (LCMT-EPP), November 2014. The final report for “APEC Low Carbon Model Town (LCMT) Promotion through Eco-Point Program (LCMT-EPP)” contains all studies and process contents such as the project background, data collection and assessment of EPP program via desk reviews, public consultation; focus group meeting, EPP forum and dissemination results, development process and the finalization of APEC EPP Guideline, development process and the finalized SAMUI EPP Guideline and Roadmap. It also presents the APEC Low Carbon Model Town (LCMT) Promotion through Eco-Point Program (LCMT-EPP) activities for guideline developments.

 

APEC

APEC Low-Carbon Model Town Energy Management System Development and Application Research, Published 2013. This project emphasizes on the following: field research on different stages of low-carbon town energy produce, energy transmission and storage, distribution as well as energy consumption, systematic summary and research on Energy Internet, energy management system storage technology; methods of constantly optimizing integrated planning, design and layout of energy, and sharing collected cases and materials with APEC economies in this report.

 

APEC

Policy Practice and Technology Applications - Experiences on Low Carbon Emission Operations in Chinese Taipei, November 2014. The project aims to cultivate the energy conservation culture in APEC community. Through introducing Chinese Taipei’s policy and technology practices, conducting field verification in Thailand to examine the effectiveness to other economies and lastly, gathering knowledge and ideas from international experts, the project is expected to deliver feasible policy suggestion and industrial application models as the reference for APEC economies to implement low carbon emission operations.

 

APEC

Nearly (Net) Zero Energy Building, November 2014. This report looks at how the existing experiences and best practices of NZEB can be shared among the APEC region, benefiting both the new building construct work and existing building retrofit work in both developed and developing economies.

 

APEC

APEC Guidebook on Quality of Infrastructure Development and Investment, November 2014. This Guidebook shares further details of these common recognitions with government officials and other stakeholders in the APEC economies that are engaged in infrastructure development and investment, so that such common recognitions are actually applied to projects.

 

APEC

Supporting Continued Growth in Trade and Facilitation: End to End Review of the APEC Business Travel Card Scheme Final Report, October 2014. This report lays out the findings of this study, based on data and feedback gathered by the research team through interviews with a variety of administrative body and industry stakeholders in 11 economies, a survey of stakeholders across all 21 economies, APEC Business Mobility Group (BMG) discussions at the 2014 SOM 3 meeting, and a review of relevant documents produced by APEC and the BMG member economies.

 

APEC

An Appeal from Okinawa to the US Congress - Futenma Marine Base Relocation and its Environmental Impact: U.S. Responsibility, September 2014. Much has been written on this site on recent developments in the long-running saga over the U.S. and Japanese governments’ plan to construct a U.S. military air base, the Futenma Replacement Facility (FRF), in Henoko, Okinawa, Japan (Henoko plan). On July 1, 2014, 17 years after the plan was first conceived, the Okinawa Defense Bureau (the government of Japan) started the “construction phase” amid protest from local citizens and municipal governments. Just over a month later, on August 14, the U.S. Congressional Research Service released a report, The U.S. Military Presence in Okinawa and the Futenma Base Controversy (the CRS Report)...

 

APJ

Police Surveillance of Muslims and Human Rights in Japan, September 2014. In societies governed by the rule of law, what limitations should apply to police surveillance? What protections should be accorded to religious and ethnic minorities who may be subject to police profiling? Does police profiling of members of minority groups unfairly discriminate against them or violate fundamental rights such as the right to privacy or to practice religion? Questions like these are at the heart of ongoing litigation in Tokyo concerning police surveillance of Japan’s Muslim community...

 

APJ

A New Japanese Miracle? Its Hamstrung Feed-in Tariff Actually Works, September 2014. Reeling from history’s biggest double-blow of natural and nuclear disasters, post 3-11 Japan seemed poised to lead the world’s accelerating turn to radical efficiency and renewable energy (the latter accounted for 56% of net additions to global power capacity in 2013).1 After 3-11, then-Prime Minister Kan Naoto quickly initiated regulatory shackles on the country’s nuclear capacity and implemented a feed-in tariff (FIT)...

 

APJ

Japan's Secrecy Law and International Standards, September 2014. In the following article, two distinguished experts affiliated with the Open Society Institute examine key aspects of Japan’s 2013 “Specially Designated Secrets Protection Act.” (“SDS”) They are concerned with two central problems: defects in the process that led to adoption of the SDS, and shortcomings in the text of the law itself...

 

APJ

Sōka Gakkai Founder, Makiguchi Tsunesaburō, A Man of Peace? September 2014. Readers familiar with my research will know that its focus has been on the wartime actions and statements of Japan’s institutional Buddhist leaders, most especially those affiliated with the Zen school. Nearly to a man, their actions and statements were strongly supportive of Japanese aggression and imperialist actions. In the postwar era many of these same Zen leaders played a seminal role in the introduction of Zen to the West...

 

APJ

The US 'Pivot to Asia', the China Spectre and the Australian-American Alliance, September 2014. Obama’s ‘Pivot to Asia’ in response to the resurgence of Chinese power has undergone significant developments since it was first announced in November 2011. Not least has been the emergence of Australia as a central part of Washington’s plans to strengthen American influence and military reach across the Asia-Pacific. While elite and popular support for the US alliance in Australia persists, public opinion polls indicate possible cleavages for challenging the status quo...

 

APJ

The Myth of the "Pacifist" Japanese Constitution, September 2014. In 1947, two years after its unconditional surrender, Japan adopted a new constitution. This constitution has attracted great interest over the years, mostly due to its famous Article 9, which even was recently nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize. This constitution has increasingly become known as a symbol of pacifist ideals and has given rise to extensive local and international discourse since its establishment...

 

APJ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December, 2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

Institute of Southeast Asian Studies - Trends in Southeast Asia 2014
#05: Vietnam: Straddling Southeast Asia's Divide
#06: The South China Sea and China-ASEAN Relations
#07: China's Economic Engagement With Southeast Asia: Singapore
#08: Johor Survey: Attitudes Towards Governance and Economy,
       Iskandar Malaysia, and Singapore
#09: Establishing Infrastructure Projects: Priorities for Myanmar's
       Industrial Development - Part I: The Role of the Private Sector
#10: Establishing Infrastructure Projects: Priorities for Myanmar's
       Industrial Development - Part II: The Role of the State

 

ISEAS

Expanding Alliance: ANZUS Cooperation and Asia–Pacific Security, December 2014. The alliance between Australia and the US, underpinned by the formal ANZUS Treaty of 1951, continues to be a central part of Australian defence and security thinking and an instrument of American policy in the Asia–Pacific. How is it that an alliance conceived as a bulwark against a resurgence of Japanese militarism and which cut its military and intelligence teeth in the Cold War is still relevant to today’s strategic concerns?...

 

ASPI

Preserving the Knowledge Edge: Surveillance Cooperation and the US–Australia Alliance in Asia, December 2014. The US–Australia alliance is the bedrock of Australia’s defence policy. Successive governments have looked to the alliance for access to military technology, intelligence and training, as well as a promise of support against direct threats to Australia. However, Australia, the US and other regional allies today face a rapidly changing strategic environment in the Indo-Pacific. The American ‘rebalance’ to Asia represents recognition by the US that it needs to give greater priority to its management of the changing balance—an effort firmly endorsed by President Obama in his address at the University of Queensland...

 

ASPI

Waves of Opportunity: Enhancing Australia-Indonesia Maritime Security Cooperation. November 2014. Maritime security cooperation between Australia and Indonesia is important because of our geographical proximity and common interests. With recently-installed President Joko Widodo proclaiming Indonesia as the ‘World Maritime Axis’, there’s great momentum for Australia and Indonesia to enhance maritime security cooperation. This paper looks at ways to enhance cooperation through: more interaction between policymakers; facilitating greater integration among the agencies responsible for maritime security cooperation; national and regional capacity-building, and cooperative and collective maritime domain awareness.

 

ASPI

China, the G20 and Global Economic Governance, November 2014. At the closing of the 2014 G20 Brisbane Summit, the presidency of the 2016 G20 was awarded to China. This is the first time China will chair the world’s ‘premier forum for economic cooperation’. Yet the G20 is just one way that China, now the world’s largest economy on purchasing power parity terms, may seek to shape global economic governance. China is both seeking changes to the ‘traditional’ global economic governance model, centred upon the Bretton Woods Institutions, and experimenting with new processes such as the BRICS forum and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank...

 

Lowy

Defence Challenges 2035: Securing Australia's Lifelines, November 2014. As the Australian government prepares a new white paper to guide the country’s defence planning to 2035, the burden of strategic risk on Australia’s national interests is increasing. Those interests are extensive and face a widening range of risks, from coercion or conflict in Asia to resurgent terrorism and aggression in other parts of the globe. Australia’s region is becoming more central to global power balances and strategic tensions. Power balances are changing with China’s rise, and this will encourage risk-taking...

 

Lowy

The Declining Share of Agricultural Employment in the People's Republic of China: How Fast? November 2014. Rapid economic growth has long been viewed by the PRC’s policymakers as the most powerful antidote to reform-induced job loss. For an economy that needs about 10 million new jobs each year to keep its urban unemployment rate constant, any growth slowdown is a major concern...

 

ADB

The People's Republic of China’s Potential Growth Rate: The Long-Run Constraints. This paper assesses the trajectory of the People's Republic of China's (PRC’s) potential growth rate during the last 30 years in order to understand the policy dilemmas that the PRC’s policymakers face. It evaluates the relevance of various possible constraints that may limit the country’s growth in the future, focusing on the effects of the slowdown in working-age population growth and on the long-term constraint imposed by the balance of payments equilibrium. It also devotes special attention to the role played by structural change, and assesses the implications of the increasing importance of the services sector for the PRC’s future growth.

 

ADB

Cambodia: Diversifying Beyond Garments and Tourism, November 2014. Cambodia has enjoyed over 2 decades of robust growth, with rising foreign investment and deepening integration into global and regional value chains. The country—once riven by civil war and conflict—is now politically stable and increasingly making its mark as the world’s eighth-largest rice producer, Asia’s 10th largest garment exporter, and a rising tourist destination. Yet Cambodia faces considerable challenges. It suffers from major infrastructure deficits; limited skills development and education quality; and weaknesses in governance. Fiscal resources are also stretched. Moreover, for a successful transition to a modern industrialized economy, Cambodia needs to diversify and upgrade its productive capabilities

 

ADB

Pacific Economic Monitor, December 2014. Robust revenue collections in smaller Pacific economies - Rising rates under a regional vessel day scheme continue to support strong fishing license revenues in Kiribati, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, and Tuvalu. Increased economic activity and improved compliance are also pushing tax revenue collections higher in Fiji, Palau, Tonga, and Vanuatu...

 

ADB

Middle-Income Transitions: Trap or Myth? November 2014. The historical evidence presented in this paper indicates that economies move up across income groups. Historically, it has taken a “typical” economy 55 years to graduate from lower-middle income to upper-middle income. Likewise, the authors find that, historically, it has taken 15 years for an economy to graduate from upper-middle income to high income. The analysis implies that as of 2013, there were 10 (out of 39) lower-middle-income economies and 4 (out of 15) upper-middle-income economies that were experiencing slow transitions, i.e., above 55 and 15 years, respectively.

 

ADB

Manufacturing Matters... But It’s the Jobs That Count, November 2014. Practically every economy that enjoys a high income today experienced a manufacturing employment share in excess of 18%-20% sometime since the 1970s. This paper finds that the maximum expected employment share for a typical economy has fallen to around 13%-15%, and high manufacturing employment shares are becoming more difficult to sustain as incomes rise.

 

ADB

Hometown Investment Trust Funds: An Analysis of Credit Risk, November 2014. In Asia, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) account for a major share of employment and dominate the economy. Asian economies are often characterized as having bank-dominated financial systems and underdeveloped capital markets, in particular venture capital markets. Hence, looking for new methods of financing for SMEs is crucial. Hometown investment trust funds (HIT) are a new form of financial intermediation that has now been adopted as a national strategy in Japan...

 

ADB

Enabling GrEEEn Cities: An Operational Framework for Integrated Urban Development in Southeast Asia, November 2014. The paper presents a “model” for integrated urban development and environment planning that was developed to take the “3E” strategies of economic competitiveness, environmental sustainability, and equity, from theory to practice in Southeast Asia, under the regional technical assistance (TA) Green Cities: A Sustainable Urban Future in Southeast Asia, and based on simultaneous learning from sector work on green cities in Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam...

 

ADB

Russia Plays a Pragmatic Game on the Chinese Chess Board During APEC and EAS, November 2014. Vitaly Kozyrev, Visiting Fellow at the East-West Center in Washington, writes, "It seems that Moscow draws a line between its strategic competition with the U.S. in the European theater and in Asia, where the Kremlin seeks to prevent the monopolization of its foreign policy by China."

 

EWC

Shinzo Abe's Struggle in the Indian Ocean Region, November 2014. Tomoko Kiyota, Resident Sasakawa Peace Foundation Fellow at Pacific Forum CSIS, explains that "Shinzo Abe's strategy in the Indian Ocean region and South Asia seems to be a good way to offset the stagnation of Japan's diplomacy in East Asia. His success will depend on whether the Japanese people can understand his goals and how cooperative they are."

 

EWC

India's Joint Andaman and Nicobar Command is a Failed Experiment, November 2014. Anit Mukherjee, Assistant Professor at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore, explains that "Not only has [the Andaman and Nicobar Joint Command] failed to usher in more joint commands, but the experience might be cited by those within the military community who are opposed to [such cooperation]."

 

EWC

Modi's Canberra Visit: Continuing the Momentum, November 2014. Rajeswari Pillai Rajagopalan, Senior Fellow at the Observer Research Foundation in New Delhi, explains that "there is a new outlook on bilateral relations, with a growing bipartisan support emerging in Australia for closer ties with India and New Delhi shedding its old thinking about Canberra as an appendage to Washington."

 

EWC

Modi Meets Abbott: A New Start for Australia-India Relations? November 2014. Ian Hall, Senior Fellow in the Department of International Relations at The Australian National University, explains that "Modi's impending visit presents an opportunity to put some momentum back into a 'strategic partnership' that has drifted for some years. If nothing else, it will highlight how Australia has changed and the growing intensity of people-to-people ties with India."

 

EWC

Myanmar: Taking the Long View, November 2014. Priscilla Clapp, former US Charge d'Affaires in Rangoon, explains that "A return to sanctions and punitive policies would limit US influence on the government just at the time when we have a unique array of policy measures and channels of communication for assisting and guiding the transition forward."

 

EWC

Asian Economic Integration Monitor, November 2014. The Asian Economic Integration Monitor is a semiannual review of Asia’s regional economic cooperation and integration. It covers the 48 regional members of the Asian Development Bank. The external recovery has been tentative this year after G3 economic growth slipped during the first half—the better US growth outlook has yet to benefit Asia, there is some uncertainty over Japan’s prospects, and the eurozone economy continues to struggle...

 

ADB

Do Governance Indicators Explain Development Performance? A Cross-Country Analysis, November 2014. Developing Asian countries with a surplus in government effectiveness, political stability, regulatory quality, and corruption control are observed to grow faster than those with a deficit in these indicators...

 

ADB

Fiscal Resources for Inclusive Growth, November 2014. To expand relatively low fiscal resource bases, developing Asian economies need to pay greater attention to non-tax revenue and to taxes other than broad-based taxes on income and consumption, such as property taxes and corrective taxes...

 

ADB

Government Spending and Inclusive Growth in Developing Asia, November 2014. Compared with revenue policies, spending programs are more likely to have direct effects on specific groups. It would be meaningful to discuss whether and/or how government expenditures contribute to economic growth while alleviating income inequality and maintaining social cohesion...

 

ADB

Are Current Tax and Spending Regimes Sustainable in Developing Asia? November 2014. Changes in population age structure matter for public finances because the beneficiaries of public programs are primarily children and the elderly. This study projects government spending on education, health care, and social protection in developing Asia up to 2050 as a result of demographic changes and economic growth...

 

ADB

Benefit Incidence of Public Transfers: Evidence from the People's Republic of China, November 2014. Three decades of virtually uninterrupted hyper economic growth have propelled the People’s Republic of China into the ranks of middle-income countries. However, this period of expansion in the economy has been accompanied by an equally rapid increase in levels of inequality in society...

 

ADB

Trade Policy Challenges in a Small, Open, Fragile, Postconflict Economy: Cambodia, October 2014. This paper analyzes the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Trade Policy Review: Cambodia, the first completed for the country. The report highlights Cambodia’s rapid economic growth after one of the world’s worst genocides in the 20th century. This growth has been underpinned by open trade and investment policies in the context of dynamic neighborhood growth effects...

 

ADB

From Spaghetti Bowl to Jigsaw Puzzle? Addressing the Disarray in the World Trade System, October 2014. The rise of mega-regionals such as the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) suggests that the world trade system is fragmenting to the point it appears more like a jigsaw puzzle than a spaghetti bowl. There are both regional and global jigsaw puzzles to be solved—in that order—to clean up the world trade system. But is this even likely...

 

ADB

Business Cycle Synchronization in Asia: The Role of Financial and Trade Linkages, October 2014. In this research project, we attempt to examine the behavior of business cycles in Asia in order to deepen our understanding of and expand research on this topic. Given the importance of the People’s Republic of China, Japan, and the United States in the region economy, we use these three economies as our “reference countries” to study the synchronization of their business cycles with other Asian economies of interest...

 

ADB

World Trade Organization Agreement on Trade Facilitation: Assessing the Level of Ambition and Likely Impacts, September 2014. At the Ninth Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO) held in Bali on 3–6 December 2013, the ministers agreed upon the WTO Agreement on Trade Facilitation (ATF). This paper assesses the level of ambition of the ATF from two angles. First, the use of softening language in each provision is examined. Second, the final agreement is compared against the draft text prepared before the Bali conference. Then, the paper considers the likely legal, economic, capacity-building, and reform-inducing impacts of the ATF.

 

ADB

How Capital Flows Affect Economy-wide Vulnerability and Inequality: Flow-of-Funds Analysis of Selected Asian Economies, July 2014. In contrast to the situation that preceded the 1997–1998 Asian financial crisis, Asia today is a region with excess savings where corporate savings dominate. In the mid-2000s, the extent of liquidity was further amplified by massive capital flows, particularly bank-led flows. The flows were briefly interrupted by the global financial crisis, before debt-led flows began to dominate, following the Quantitative Easing (QE) policy in the United States...

 

ADB

Has Regional Integration Led to Greater Risk-sharing in Asia? July 2014. The 1997–1998 Asian financial crisis revealed the latent risks present in an increasingly integrated global economy and how virulent these risks can be when roused from dormancy. Given the inevitability of integration, the challenge is how to maximize its benefits while minimizing its costs. One benefit of greater integration, particularly financial integration, is that countries can diversify their risks, thus allowing them to smooth out their consumption. This paper analyzes whether the degree of risk-sharing in East Asia has improved along with the observed rise in integration in the region...

 

ADB

Technologies to Support Climate Change Adaptation in Developing Asia, Published 2014. This study has four important findings. First, decision makers considering adaptation options should take their local context into account in determining the range of both hard and soft adaptation technologies available to them. Just because a technology addresses a current vulnerability in one area does not necessarily mean it will perform equally well in a different context with different climatic and other conditions...

 

ADB

2014 CTI Annual Report to Ministers. The CTI Annual Report to Ministers for 2014 outlines the Committee’s accomplishments and recommendations in the key priority areas of APEC’s Trade and Investment Liberalization and Facilitation (TILF) agenda in support of APEC’s 2014 priorities under the theme of “Shaping the Future through Asia-Pacific Partnership”.

 

APEC

APEC Guidebook on Financial and Economic Literacy in Basic Education, Published 2014. The APEC Guidebook on Financial and Economic Literacy in Basic Education demonstrates how to design and implement learning activities related to financial and economic literacy in primary and lower secondary schools.

 

APEC

Innovation, Competitiveness and the Role of Fiscal Policies, November 2014. This issues paper aims to contribute to that priority by examining the role of fiscal and taxation policies that are related to R&D and the need to sharpen APEC economies’ competitive edge and accelerate the economic restructuring process in the APEC region.

 

APEC

50 Leading Companies for Women in APEC, November 2014. Building upon the APEC’s Growth Strategy of 2010 and other APEC activities, this project seeks to provide support for increased career and economic opportunities for women in the APEC region and beyond.

 

APEC

Report to Implement the APEC Connectivity Blueprint, Published 2014. The Report to Implement the APEC Connectivity Blueprint supports the implementation of the APEC Connectivity Blueprint for 2015-2025 which was endorsed by APEC Leaders during their meeting in November 2014 in Beijing, China. The report was prepared by SOM Friends of the Chair on Connectivity and the Policy Support Unit. 

 

APEC

How to Promote Business Continuity Planning to Mitigate the Impact of Disasters, Published 2014. This guide highlights the challenges officials face in their efforts to promote the use of Business Continuity Plans by SMEs and offers ideas and options for overcoming these challenges.

 

APEC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

  

 
 

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