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We index full-text journals with open access platforms in our NEW Asia-Studies Full-Text Plus section. Here is the list of journals available.

 
 

 

 
 

 

 
 

 

 
 

January, 2017 Current Topics

 

Source

 

 

 

 

Azerbaijan’s Formula: Secular Governance and Civic Nationhood, November 2016. In January 2016, Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev designated 2016 the “Year of Multiculturalism.” This took place at a time when Azerbaijan’s neighborhood has experienced a trend toward less rather than more separation between religion and state; and toward more ethnic rather than civic conceptions of nationhood. This trend has been particularly pronounced in two powers with whom Azerbaijan is closely connected, Russia and Turkey. Yet Azerbaijan has chosen to go in the other direction, doubling down on the country’s commitment to secular governance and an inclusive conception of the nation...

 

ISDP

Kazakhstan 2041: the Next Twenty-Five Years, October 2016. Kazakhstan has come a long way in the twenty five years since it gained sovereignty. The leadership can point to impressive economic development, stability, strengthened sovereignty, and respect for “brand Kazakhstan” on the international arena. Looking to the next twenty-five years and beyond, Kazakh authorities have set forth an ambitious vision for turning the country into one of the most developed in the world. On the road ahead, old challenges will remain and new ones will doubtless emerge. As it embarks on its further development Kazakhstan will be confronted by several crucial social, economic, political, and international realities...

 

ISDP

Rethinking Electricity Sector Reform in Developing Asia: Balancing Economic and Environmental Objectives, Published 2016. The OECD or ‘standard’ model of electricity sector reforms has been widely adopted in non-OECD Asian countries since the 1990s. However, despite two decades of attempts at reforms, no notable progress has been made towards the original objectives of reform. Whilst in OECD countries, reforms were implemented against excess capacity and stable institutions, in developing non-OECD Asian countries they were implemented against chronic electricity shortages, fiscal constraints, weak institutions, and complex political factors...

 

ASARC

Renewable Energy Trade Within Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Countries: An Exploratory Analysis, Published 2016. Though the availability of cost effective and potentially efficient renewable energy technologies is a necessary condition for the promotion of green growth nationally and internationally, it is the intended nationally determined contributions (INDC) to make use of such technologies is crucial. International trade in low carbon renewable energy goods provides an effective way of achieving INDCs nationally, even when individual countries may not have sufficient infrastructure readily available to them to fulfill INDCs...

 

ASARC

An Analysis of the Paddy/Rice Value Chains in Sri Lanka, Published 2016. This paper examines whether the structure of the paddy / rice market in Sri Lanka is competitive and efficient particularly by undertaking two tracer surveys. From these surveys it was revealed that the profit margins accruing to almost all the players involved in the paddy/rice value chains of both Nadu and Samba varieties are not excessive when compared with the average bank lending rate of 15 percent. The results of the tracer surveys also show that both the Nadu and Samba paddy/ rice value chains are economically efficient...

 

ASARC

After Mosul: Australia's Strategy to Counter the Islamic State, December 2016. As the battle for Mosul unfolds in Iraq, Australian policymakers must carefully consider Australia’s long-term objectives in the Middle East. One critical question needs to be answered because it’s central to the process of making strategy. What is the Australian policy objective: to what end are our forces there? Once that question is answered, we can decide what comes next. The world has watched the Islamic State (IS) evolve from a regional insurgency to a proto-state and global terrorist organisation that poses a significant threat to Australia’s national security. In the future, the group is likely to revert to insurgency operations to ensure its survival, but the global terrorist threat will remain...

 

ASPI

Bilateral and Regional Implications of the U.S.-Philippine Enhanced Defence Cooperation Agreement, December 2016. Renato De Castro, Visiting Fellow at the East-West Center in Washington, explains that “A rotational U.S. military presence will strengthen the Philippines’ resolve to uphold its territorial claims in the South China Sea and test American credibility in honoring its defense commitment to the country.”

 

EWC

Australia-Philippines Relationship Status: "It's Complicated", December 2016 Charmaine Deogracias and Orrie Johan, Journalist at Vera Files, and researcher at the East-West Center in Washington, respectively, explain that “Relations are also affected by Duterte’s skepticism of Australian and U.S. resolve in supporting the Philippines, and by Australia’s concerns about a shift by Duterte away from the U.S. and towards China. These trends pose major challenges for Philippines-Australia relations and risk causing them to deteriorate.”

 

EWC

Can China Participate in Middle East Stabilization Efforts by Supporting Regional Connectivity? December 2016. Yoram Evron, Visiting Fellow at the East-West Center in Washington, explains that “If China takes a prominent role in the establishment and operation of international transportation lines, this would make Beijing a de facto stakeholder in and facilitator of regional stability and development.”

 

EWC

Standard-Essential Patents within Global Networks--An Emerging Economies Perspective, December 2016. This paper addresses two unresolved issues. First, most of the existing SEP research has focused on advanced countries. It is time to address growing concerns in emerging and developing countries that SEP-related market failures may create added uncertainty for their companies, generating unpredictable and often quite significant costs and delaying market entry of their products. Second, such SEP-related market failures are even more important in a world where increasingly complex and diverse global corporate networks integrate dispersed production, engineering, product development and research across geographic borders...

 

EWC

Asian Economic Integration Report 2016 (Highlights, Full Report). With the continued anemic global economic recovery, trade growth in Asia and the Pacific decelerated in 2015, falling further behind growth in gross domestic product. Asia’s trade growth by volume decelerated to 2.3% in 2015, below the 2.7% growth in global trade, and falling further below the region’s gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate of 5.3%. Developing Asia’s exports grew 3.0% in 2015, on par with advanced economies. But imports grew a meager 1.7% compared with 4.5% in advanced economies...

 

ADB

Structural Change and Moderating Growth in the People’s Republic of China: Implications for Developing Asia and Beyond, Published 2016. This report assesses the effects of these changes on the rest of the region and the world, looking closely at various channels of transmission including commodity prices, trade, and production. The continued moderation of growth in the PRC could knock off a third of a percentage point a year in growth for the rest of developing Asia over the next 2 years. Changes in PRC economic activity significantly affect commodity prices, but the estimated impact varies by commodity. This report discusses how developing Asia’s policy-makers can respond to the challenges and opportunities presented by these changes.

 

ADB

Pacific Economic Monitor, December 2016. This edition of the Pacific Economic Monitor focuses on niche product development. The Pacific is increasingly becoming known worldwide for products such as coffee, chocolate, chili, vanilla, cosmetics, and signature clothing. These products, while produced at low volumes, can fetch premium prices by trading on the unique stories of their development, and exotic local ingredients derived from the pristine Pacific environment. Collective efforts to improve product quality and increased access to trade finance are but two of the ways through which Pacific exporters can harness these opportunities...

 

ADB

Do Natural Disasters Change Savings and Employment Choices? Evidence from Bangladesh and Pakistan, December 2016. Bangladesh and Pakistan are among the countries most vulnerable to livelihood risks arising from frequent exposure to large-scale natural disasters. We study household responses to floods and storms in terms of short-term changes in their dependence on agriculture. Results show that rural households temporarily move away from agriculture in response to disaster then come back after a short period of time. They therefore remain vulnerable to climatic extremes. Development of nonfarm employment opportunities in rural areas can therefore be a useful public policy to lower their dependence on agriculture and reduce their income and livelihood vulnerabilities.

 

ADB

The Economics of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Developing Asia, December 2016. This study uses an economy–energy–climate model to assess the long-term effects of Paris Agreement pledges on developing Asia, in comparison with business as usual and more ambitious scenarios to limit warming to 2°C. It finds potential for modest macroeconomic costs of ambitious mitigation, but that clean energy investment needs are substantial. When costs, benefits of avoided climate change, and cobenefits are considered together, investment in mitigation policy is found to have substantial economic returns for the region—if action is taken rapidly and international carbon market mechanisms are implemented to allow mitigation to occur where it is least costly.

 

ADB

Natural Disaster Shocks and Macroeconomic Growth in Asia: Evidence for Typhoons and Droughts, December 2016. Under a looming threat of climate-related extreme events, estimates of the effects of typhoons and droughts show declines in national incomes compared to predisaster trends persisting up to 2 decades. In Asia, damages from typhoons double relative to a unit increase in wind speed with mean damages projected to rise from 5% to 50%. This could undo development gains in vulnerable developing Asian economies and affect mostly the poor. Relocation, social safety nets, and disaster insurance or similar ex ante mechanisms are needed to cope with increased disaster risks.

 

ADB

Cobenefits and Trade-Offs of Green and Clean Energy: Evidence from the Academic Literature and Asian Case Studies, December 2016. This paper assesses the positive cobenefits of promoting green and clean energy in Asia, and discusses four case studies where cobenefits have been delivered in practice in Indonesia, People's Republic of China, Japan, and Singapore. It first defines what is meant by “clean” energy across the four technological systems of cooking, renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and urban transport. It summarizes at least four general types of cobenefits to investing in these systems...

 

ADB

Effects of Temperature Shocks on Economic Growth and Welfare in Asia, December 2016. This study finds that overall economic productivity of developing Asia would be at least 10% lower by 2100 relative to a business as usual scenario as it examines the nonlinear response effect of economic growth to historic temperature and precipitation fluctuations. This paper confirms that aside from the significant effect of rising temperature on agricultural production, industrial production and investment endeavors also serve as other potential channels through which temperature significantly affects overall economic productivity. It empirically analyzes policy measures and factors that could help countries mitigate consumption volatility driven by climate change-related events. Likewise, government plays a critical role in moderating the negative impact of rising temperature in both output and consumption.

 

ADB

Governance, Vulnerability to Climate Change, and Green Growth: International Evidence, November 2016. We find that governance has a positive effect on environmental performance and vulnerability to climate change has a negative effect. Promoting good governance and reducing climate change vulnerability can thus contribute to a cleaner environment. We find qualitatively similar results for the subsample of high-income countries, but governance has an insignificant effect for the subsamples of upper-middle-income, lower-middle-income, and low-income countries. High-income countries have strong environmental policies to protect the environment whereas other countries need to strengthen their relatively weak environmental policies.

 

ADB

How to Fill the Working-Age Population Gap in Asia: A Population Accounting Approach, November 2016. World populations are aging—with the speed and extent of the demographic shift varying across developed and developing economies. Extending the retirement age is expected to reduce the dependency ratio by increasing the number of workers relative to the number of consumers. Meanwhile, increasing immigration will require proactive efforts in both host and source economies. While increasing fertility rates may entail additional short–term burdens on the economy, policy makers need to take urgent action to avoid being trapped in the vicious cycle of shrinking populations and rising dependency ratios.

 

ADB

Trade, Poverty Eradication, and the Sustainable Development Goals, December 2016. Trade can both benefit and hurt poor households; sound complementary policies are needed. We investigate if trade can help achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal of poverty eradication using microeconomic and macroeconomic mechanisms and the effects of trade and trade policy on consumer prices, producer prices, and wages...

 

ADB

Two Stages of Economic Development, December 2016. The People’s Republic of China is at the intersection of two stages of economic development. We suggest that the development process of a less-developed country can be divided into two stages, which demonstrate significantly different properties in areas such as structural endowments, production modes, income distribution, and the forces that drive economic growth...

 

ADB

The Effect of Opposite Sex Siblings on Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills in Early Childhood, December 2016. Having a sister improves learning for boys in early childhood. We investigate the effect of having opposite sex siblings on cognitive and noncognitive skills of children in the United States at the onset of formal education. Our identification strategy rests on the assumption that, conditional on covariates, the sibling sex composition of the two firstborn children in a family is arguably exogenous...

 

ADB

Trade, Infrastructure, and Development, December 2016. This paper surveys the literature on trade and development, especially on complementarities associated with trade infrastructure. The empirical literature shows that, on average, trade causes growth, but the relationship is far from homogeneous across countries since initial conditions matter. Although the empirical literature shows that investment in soft and hard infrastructure has an unambiguously positive impact on trade flows, the theoretical literature argues that priority should be given to investments in national rather than international infrastructure in countries with relatively poor national infrastructure. This paper finds that data support this prediction.

 

ADB

Determinants of Tenure Choice in Japan: What Makes You a Homeowner? December 2016. Income level and family size mainly determine homeownership in Japan. Despite Japan’s highly developed housing market, little is known about the determinants of renter-to-homeowner tenure transition. Exploiting the Japanese longitudinal household data of the Keio Household Panel Survey (2004–2013), this paper aims to close this gap. Our results show that income level and increase in family size are the strongest determinants for homeownership in Japan...

 

ADB

Poverty and Ethnicity in Asian Countries, December 2016. Disadvantaged ethnic groups are poorer because of inequalities in education, regional development, and urban-rural gaps. We compare the extent and the nature of the higher prevalence of poverty among disadvantaged ethnic groups in six Asian countries using demographic surveys. We first estimate a composite wealth index as a proxy for economic status, and analyze the magnitude of the ethnic gap in absolute and relative poverty levels across six countries and different ethnicities in those countries...

 

ADB

Poverty and Nutrition: A Case Study of Rural Households in Thailand and Viet Nam, December 2016. Income growth alone does not improve nutrition rates. We analyze the link between nutrition and poverty in two Asian countries where monetary-based poverty reduction was especially successful. Thailand and Viet Nam are two emerging market economies where poverty rates are now below 10% and are declining further. Despite this success, it is not clear to what extent it has translated into similar improvements in the nutritional situation of the people, and especially of children...

 

ADB

Climate Change and Vulnerability to Poverty: An Empirical Investigation , December 2016. Climate change puts people at greater risk of becoming poor. Scientists estimate that anthropogenic climate change leads to increased surface temperature, rising sea levels, and more frequent extreme weather and climate events, among others. We investigate how climate change can potentially change vulnerability to poverty using a panel data set in Indonesia. We focus on the effect of drought and flood, two of the commonly observed disasters there. Our simulation results indicate that vulnerability to poverty in Indonesia may increase substantially as a result of climate change.

 

ADB

Financial Inclusion, Financial Regulation, and Education in Bangladesh, December 2016. Education and financial literacy levels mainly determine financial inclusion. Like in many other countries, inclusive finance for inclusive growth has become a policy issue in Bangladesh following the global financial crisis in 2008. Over the past 10 years, intensity of financial deepening and access to financial services has increased. Both banks and microfinance institutions have contributed to higher intensity. A recent study shows that around 40% of the adult population and 75% of households have access to financial services in Bangladesh...

 

ADB

Key Issues of Central and Local Government Finance in the People’s Republic of China, December 2016. Innovative fundraising and financing channels will help upgrade local government infrastructure and public services. Fiscal decentralization has been established in the People’s Republic of China (PRC), but crises emerge at the local government level due to remaining problems of the fiscal administration system of tax allocation and the impact of replacing the business tax with a value added tax. The PRC taxation system requires readjustment and local governments have begun to focus on innovative financing models...

 

ADB

Spillovers of the United States’ Unconventional Monetary Policy to Emerging Asia: The Bank Lending Channel, December 2016. Spillover effects of the United States’ unconventional monetary policy on the Asian credit market are large but differ depending on the type, purpose, and terms of loans. This paper assesses the spillover effects of the United States’ unconventional monetary policy (i.e., quantitative easing programs adopted during 2008–2014) on the Asian credit market. With a focus on cross-border bank lending, we employed firm-level loan data with regard to the syndicated loan market and measured the international bank lending channel through changes in United States dollar-denominated loans extended to Asian borrowers...

 

ADB

Measuring Multidimensional Poverty in Three Southeast Asian Countries using Ordinal Variables, December 2016. This paper aims to highlight the contribution of the recent methodological refinements of poverty measures based on counting approaches using ordinal variables to the understanding of the evolution of poverty in Cambodia, Indonesia and the Philippines. Using the general framework proposed by Silber and Yalonetzky (2013), this paper compares multidimensional poverty measures such as the Multidimensional Poverty Index used by the UNDP (an index based on the approach of Alkire and Foster [2011]) with others which are sensitive to the distribution of deprivation counts across individuals...

 

ADB

APEC Low-Carbon Town Indicator System Guideline (First Edition), November 2016 The APEC Low-Carbon Town Indicator (LCT-I) System Guideline has been developed to work with The Concept of the Low-Carbon Town in the APEC Region or the Concept. The LCT- I System is a self-assessment tool to assess and monitor the progress of each LCT development project that is based upon the concept. The users can easily carry out an assessment with the attached LCT-I evaluation sheet as it was designed as simple as possible.

 

APEC

The Concept of the Low-Carbon Town in the APEC Region (Sixth Edition): Executive Summary, Volume I and Volume II, November 2016. It aims to promote the development of low-carbon towns in the APEC region by providing a basic principle that can assist the central and local government officials of the member economies in planning effective low-carbon policies and in formulating an appropriate combination of low-carbon measures while taking socio-economic conditions and city-specific characteristics into consideration. The report consists of Volume I: Main Chapter, which provides an overview of the concept, including basic approach to develop the LCT, measures to use in the development of LCT and evaluation of the effect of low-carbon measures; and Volume II: Low-Carbon Measures, which presents low-carbon measures with their applicability and case examples.

 

APEC

Study on Systematic Solution for Promoting Capacity Building of Low-Carbon Town in APEC Economies, November 2016. The study presents a systematic investigation of low-carbon towns’ construction capacity by employing literature review, policy research, assessment model, case studies and demonstrations of China’s low-carbon city construction. The research outlines implications for building low-carbon cities and towns in the APEC region, identifies factors impacting capacity building, and discusses ways to take full advantage of the driving paths in government, enterprise, research institutes, and social and public levels.

 

APEC

APEC Guideline for Quality Electric Power Infrastructure, October 2016. Taking into account the wide spectrum of power infrastructure from generators to national grid, this Guideline focuses on securing quality of individual “thermal power plant”. It aims to facilitate the readers’ understanding on how electric power infrastructure is built and operated, share the best practice of electric power infrastructure between readers, and provide useful suggestions of methodologies for securing the quality of electric power infrastructure. 

 

APEC

Develop Air Connectivity in the Region: Executive Summary and Economy Reports, October 2016: Executive Summary, Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, China, Hong Kong, China, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Chinese Taipei, Thailand, United States, and Viet Nam. This executive summary and 21 customized APEC economy reports complement the consolidated report, Develop Air Connectivity in the APEC Region. The summary and economy reports provide greater details and market demand-driven recommendations for new non-stop flights, hubs, and improved flight schedule connection times. This can help airlines and regulators make faster decisions to improve air connectivity across the APEC Region.

 

APEC

Develop Air Connectivity in the Region: Consolidated Report, October 2016. This report consolidates the outcomes of a market assessment and analysis research conducted with the aim to develop air connectivity in the APEC region. True Origin/Destination air traffic demand between the APEC economies was calibrated with existing flights, seat capacity and flight schedules, using IATA's travel intelligence software. The results were aligned with an analysis of new aircraft with increased flying range. To achieve air connectivity with non-stop flights between every APEC economy, there are 210 economy pairs possible of which: 131 (62%) are connected with non-stop flights and 79 (38%) are not connected with non-stop flights. Of the 79 economy pairs that are currently not connected with non-stop flights, 47 (22%) cannot be connected due to aircraft technology limitations, and 6 (3%) can be connected based on the market demand recommendations of this project.

 

APEC

Promotion of Regional Economic Integration by Developing APEC Gateway Port Connectivity, December 2016. This study provides information on the underlying drivers of gateway port functions, and how such functions of a port can facilitate trade and promote economic growth. The best practices and development trends of gateway ports are reviewed, and their success factors and challenges are identified. Tools and indices to measure gateway port performance are discussed, and this discussion contributes to the recommendations of technical and political recommendations of developing gateway port functions.

 

APEC

RAASR Individual Action Plans, November 2016. This report highlights the 21 member economies’ commitment to APEC's structural reform agenda as outlined in the RAASR.

 

APEC

Hmong Studies Journal, Vol. 17, 2016  

HSJ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

Defence White Papers at 40, December 2016. The Defence White Paper brought down earlier this year (DWP 2016), the seventh of its kind, appeared shortly before the 40th anniversary of the first, which was tabled in parliament by the Defence Minister, James (later Sir James) Killen, in November 1976. For a governmental practice as for an individual, a 40th anniversary is a good time to stand back and assess the past, present and future...

 

ASPI

France and Security in the Asia–Pacific: from the End of the First Indochina Conflict to Today, December 2016. France’s defence- and security-related activities in the Asia–Pacific are often underestimated, sometimes distorted or simply ignored. This paper surveys France’s growing presence in the Asia–Pacific from the Indochina War and efforts to resolve the Cambodian conflict, through to the country’s 21st century contributions driven by strategic engagement related to globalisation, new threats, multilateral regional cooperation and increasingly interconnected strategic zones...

 

ASPI

Delivering ‘Joined-Up’ Government Achieving the Integrated Approach to Offshore Crisis Management, November 2016. The call to improve ‘joined-up’ government articulates a principle that is the foundation of effective and efficient public administration. Increasingly, the ability of government to achieve effects that are more than the sum of their parts will determine whether Australia influences its strategic environment or is merely captive to it. Offshore crisis response requires a higher level of multiagency interconnectedness than ever before. This level of interconnectedness requires the adoption of transformative approaches to recruitment, professional development, leadership and management...

 

ASPI

Indonesia in the South China Sea: Going It Alone, December 2016. Under President Jokowi, Indonesia’s approach to the South China Sea disputes has moved from that of an active player in efforts to find a peaceful solution to the broader disputes, to one primarily focused on protecting its own interests around the Natuna Islands while not antagonising China. The shift in the Indonesian position has been driven by an increase in Chinese incursions around the Natunas, Jokowi’s lack of interest in regional diplomacy, as well as his goal of attracting Chinese investment for his signature infrastructure projects...

 

Lowy

Future Proofing Australia–New Zealand Defence Relations, December 2016. Australia and New Zealand should be natural military partners. But differences in their strategic outlooks and military priorities have sometimes placed limits on the extent of that partnership. Both countries published Defence White Papers in 2016 which suggest greater convergence in their priorities that should enhance their military cooperation in coming years. This includes a shared concern for the future of the rules-based order in Asia and for stability in the Pacific. Consistent with these concerns both countries are investing heavily in the development of maritime capabilities. In particular, some of New Zealand’s leading priorities, including the enhancement of its maritime surveillance capacity, will allow for even deeper collaboration in this sphere...

 

Lowy

The Development Benefits of Expanding Pacific Access to Australia’s Labour Market, December 2016. A stable and prosperous Pacific Islands region is essential for Australia’s security and foreign policy. Australia is investing significant amounts of aid in the development of the region with very mixed results. The economic, demographic, governance, and climatic challenges the Pacific faces will make sustained development of the region even more difficult in the years to come. It is for this reason that Prime Minister Turnbull has committed Australia to a ‘step-change’ in Australia’s engagement with the Pacific built on fresh ideas...

 

Lowy

How to Be Exceptional: Australia in the Slowing Global Economy, November 2016. Australia is gliding into its 26th year of uninterrupted economic expansion at the same time that the United States and the United Kingdom are wrestling with political rebellions against the very forces that have stoked Australia’s long boom. Open trade, high migration, and unimpeded economic globalisation are under political challenge in major advanced economies. In those same economies, respected economists are predicting a gloomier future. Former US Treasury Secretary Lawrence Summers has declared ours to be an “Age of Secular Stagnation”. US economist Robert Gordon says the best is over for the US economy and others like it...

 

Lowy

Trends in Southeast Asia 2016 #17: New Context of Vietnam’s National Security Challenges. Vietnam’s concept of national security is based on “the survival of the ruling regime that acts in the name of the country”. This is unlike in many countries where national security relates merely to the survival of the state. Because the challenges to Vietnam’s national security are perceived as challenges and threats to the ruling regime, the concept of national security tends to focus on the internal dimension of national security. The Mid-term National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) in 1994 listed “four threats” facing the country, namely, the danger of falling behind neighbouring countries economically; the threat of “peaceful evolution”; deviation from socialism; and corruption and bureaucratism. None of them, except for peaceful evolution, comes from outside...

 

ISEAS

Trends in Southeast Asia 2016 #16: The Johor Sultanate: Rise or Re-emergence?. Malaysia's sultans have in recent years taken on an increasingly discernible role in the country's political life. However, rather than something new, the rulers' resurgence should be viewed as part of a longer term negotiation over the precise boundaries of their role. The Sultan of Johor, Ibrahim Ismail, is arguably the most visible of the country's rulers at present. Since ascending to the throne in 2010, he has constructed a prominent media profile and been active in many areas of policy-making. He reinstated the Islamic week, suggested expanding the role of the Johor Military Force, and promoted a unique state identity. Planned initiatives by him include a Bank of Johor, a large-scale low-cost housing scheme, as well as a maglev train linking the eastern and western parts of the state's southern coast...

 

ISEAS

Duterte, Mindanao, and Political Culture, November 2016. Alan Tidwell, Director of the Center for Australian, New Zealand, and Pacific Studies at Georgetown University explains that "Arguably the Philippines was in crisis even before the election of Duterte. His election can be seen, in part, as a reaction to that crisis, as much as it can be seen as contributing to it.”

 

EWC

Reforming China's Arms Procurement System: An Effort to be Closely Watched, November 2016. Yoram Evron, Visiting Fellow at the East-West Center in Washington, explains that “The PLA reforms are facing unavoidable challenges of organizational inertia and resistance by commanders and units that lose their power. In addition, President Xi still faces opposition within the party.”

 

EWC

Land Tenure Security and Policy Tensions in Myanmar (Burma), October 2016. After 50 years of military rule, in 2011 the Thein Sein government's reforms in Myanmar (Burma) entailed a reengagement with the international community, including major international financial organizations, donors, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and civil society organizations (CSOs). The government's social and economic development policies, which were strongly influenced by this engagement, encouraged private domestic and foreign investment in agriculture to create wealth and reduce poverty. Land legislation allied to these policies was designed to improve land tenure security, yet it had harmful effects on the majority of the population employed in agriculture, including smallholder farmers and ethnic communities...

 

EWC

Patents and Technology Transfer through Trade and the Role of Regional Trade Agreements, October 2016. Regional trade agreements can have powerful impacts on technology transfer (TT), primarily through their effects on trade in high-technology goods and services, foreign direct investment (FDI), and licensing, all of which are key channels of information diffusion. In that context, regional trade agreements (RTAs) and mega-regionals such as the TPP embody considerable promise for direct expansion of TT, if primarily within the agreement. Moreover, recent econometric evidence largely finds that each of these flows responds positively to strengthened patent laws and other intellectual property rights (IPR), though this conclusion must be conditioned on a variety of factors (Maskus, 2012). These basic observations suggest that there could be an important complementarity between the formation of trade agreements and their IPR standards, a critical question that has not yet attracted much investigation...

 

EWC

ASEAN+3 Bond Market Guide 2016: Hong Kong, China, Published 2016. The ASEAN+3 Bond Market Guide is a comprehensive explanation of the region’s bond markets. It provides various information such as the history, legal and regulatory framework, specific characteristics of the market, trading and transaction, and other relevant information. The Hong Kong, China Bond Market Guide is an outcome of the strong support and contributions of ASEAN+3 Bond Market Forum members and experts, particularly from Hong Kong, China. The report should be recognized as a collective good to support bond market development among ASEAN+3 members.

 

ADB

Asia Bond Monitor, November 2016. Emerging East Asian bond yields rose for nearly all markets and for most tenors between 31 October and 18 November amid uncertainty over future US economic policy and the likelihood of a Federal Reserve rate hike in December.
Given rising uncertainty, most central banks in emerging East Asia maintained their existing monetary policies in order to wait for greater clarity regarding US economic policy and its potential impacts on global financial markets.

 

ADB

Spillovers of United States and People’s Republic of China Shocks on Small Open Economies: The Case of Indonesia, November 2016. This paper examines the impact of certain external shocks originating from the US and the PRC on Indonesia as a small open economy. The spillover effects of tapering off, an interest rate hike, exchange rate devaluation, and real gross domestic product (GDP) are analyzed. Two versions of the global vector autoregression model are employed, which covers 33 countries and considers both financial and trade relations among countries. Spillover assessments are conducted through impulse responses with 1,000 bootstrap replications, and compared to the responses of peer countries...

 

ADB

Impacts of Universal Health Coverage: Financing, Income Inequality, and Social Welfare, November 2016. This paper studies the impact of tax-financed universal health coverage schemes on macroeconomic aspects of labor supply, asset holding, inequality, and welfare, while taking into account features common to developing economies, such as informal employment and tax avoidance, by constructing a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model with heterogeneous agents. Agents have different education levels, employment statuses, and idiosyncratic shocks. Given three tax financing options, calibration results based on the Thai economy suggest that the financing options matter for outcomes both at the aggregate and disaggregate levels. Universal health coverage, financed by labor income tax revenue, could reduce inequality due to its large redistributive role...

 

ADB

Reforms to the European Union Financial Supervisory and Regulatory Architecture and Their Implications for Asia, November 2016. European Union (EU) countries offer a unique experience of financial regulatory and supervisory integration, complementing various other European integration efforts following the Second World War. Financial regulatory and supervisory integration was a very slow process before 2008, despite significant cross-border integration, especially of wholesale financial markets. However, the policy framework proved inadequate in the context of the major financial crisis in the EU starting in 2007, and especially in the euro area after 2010. That crisis triggered major changes to European financial regulation and to the financial supervisory architecture, most prominently with the creation of three new European supervisory authorities in 2011 and the gradual establishment of European banking union starting in 2012...

 

ADB

Land Policy and Urbanization in the People’s Republic of China, November 2016. We explore the relationship between land policies and urbanization in the PRC. We analyze the land policies associated with urbanization and summarize findings related to central and local government involvement in the process of urbanization. In particular, we explore the relationship between urbanization and land leasing. We find that the urbanization rate and the land leasing revenue are positively related. Land leasing provides financial support for PRC urbanization, but damages the interest of landless peasants. Especially in the west, population urbanization lags behind land urbanization, resulting in much higher land and house prices in the east than those in inland PRC...

 

ADB

Fiscal Decentralization and Local Budget Deficits in Viet Nam: An Empirical Analysis, November 2016 . Since 1975, Viet Nam has gradually decentralized more fiscal responsibilities to local authorities. This study has two objectives: (i) to take stock of the current institutional framework for intergovernmental fiscal relations in Viet Nam, and (ii) to empirically assess the debt sustainability of local governments in Viet Nam. The empirical analysis uses two estimation methods: (i) fully modified ordinary least squares (OLS) to estimate the long-term correlations between co-integration equations, including vectors of co-integration variables, and stochastic regressor innovations; and (ii) fiscal reaction equations at the provincial level, based upon the Bohn (2008) model. The empirical results suggest that deficit levels are generally sustainable at the local le

 

ADB

Measuring the Impact of Vulnerability on the Number of Poor: A New Methodology with Empirical Illustrations, November 2016. Given a poverty line, a person who is non-poor (poor) currently may not be treated as non-poor (poor) in a vulnerable situation. The poverty line is adjusted in the presence of vulnerability such that the utility of a person at the current poverty line and that at the adjusted poverty line become identical. Using an additive model of vulnerability, it is shown that if the utility function obeys constant Arrow-Pratt absolute risk aversion, then the harmonized poverty line is a simple absolute augmentation of the current poverty line. On the other hand, under a multiplicative model of vulnerability with constant Arrow-Pratt relative risk aversion, the revised poverty line is a simple relative augmentation of the current poverty line...

 

ADB

A Poverty Line Contingent on Reference Groups: Implications for the Extent of Poverty in some Asian Countries, November 2016. This paper estimates the number of poor in various countries in Asia by applying an “amalgam poverty line”, which is a weighted average of an absolute poverty line (such as $1.25 per day or $1.45 per day) and a reference income (such as the mean or the median income). The number of poor is computed under various values of the weight applied to the absolute poverty line, namely 100%, 90%, 66%, and 50%. The paper provides estimates of the headcount ratio and poverty gap ratio under the various scenarios for 25 different countries or regions examined

 

ADB

Concepts and Measurement of Vulnerability to Poverty and Other Issues: A Review of Literature, November 2016. The body of literature on vulnerability is growing. We classify studies on the concepts and measurements of vulnerability to poverty into welfarist, expected poverty, and axiomatic approaches. Empirical studies on vulnerability to poverty in Asia and elsewhere show that poverty and vulnerability are related but different, and that key determinants of vulnerability often include education and location. We also briefly review other areas of vulnerability analysis such as vulnerability to climate change and recommend policies.

 

ADB

An Asian Poverty Line? Issues and Options, November 2016. Given Asia’s record of rapid economic growth and the conceptual and empirical problems of the current international income poverty line (“dollar-a-day”), this paper discusses whether there is merit to develop an Asia-specific poverty line that addresses some of the shortcomings of the dollar-a-day line and additionally considers Asia’s particular economic situation. We consider various ways of creating an Asia-specific poverty line, including an Asia-specific international income poverty line (using purchasing-power parity [PPP] adjusted dollars) that is derived from Asian national poverty lines...

 

ADB

Structural Change and Income Distribution: Accounting for Regional Inequality in the People’s Republic of China and Its Changes during 1952–2012, October 2016. This study explores the relationship between inequality and structural transformation by constructing a theoretical model, developing analytical frameworks, and implementing a case study. The general equilibrium model we develop demonstrates that inequality exhibits an inverted U shape as structural change proceeds from onset to completion...

 

ADB

Costs and Benefits of Urbanization: The Indian Case, October 2016. Urbanization has both benefits and costs. In a market economy, the trade-off between benefits and costs determines the level, speed, and pace of urbanization. This paper summarizes research findings on how urbanization enhances productivity and economic growth in both rural and urban sectors, taking the case of India...

 

ADB

Looking Beyond Conventional Intergovernmental Fiscal Frameworks: Principles, Realities, and Neglected Issues, October 2016. Fiscal decentralization and intergovernmental fiscal relations reform have become nearly ubiquitous in developing countries. Performance, however, has often been disappointing in terms of both policy formulation and outcomes. The dynamics underlying these results have been poorly researched. Available literature focuses heavily on policy and institutional design concerns framed by public finance, fiscal federalism, and public management principles...

 

ADB

Frameworks for Central–Local Government Relations and Fiscal Sustainability, October 2016. This paper reviews alternative models of the relationship between central and local governments, and provides an overview and assessment of different financing mechanisms for local governments, including tax revenues, central government transfers, bank loans, and bond issuance, with a focus on the context of emerging Asian economies. The paper also reviews financing mechanisms for local governments and mechanisms for maintaining fiscal stability and sustainability at both the central and local government levels. Based upon the evidence on the decentralization process in Asia, it proposes some policy implications for improving central-local government relations and fiscal sustainability

 

ADB

Sanitation and Sustainable Development in Japan, Published 2016. Selected projects in Kitakyushu City, Kobe City, Saitama City, Saitama Shintoshin, and Tadotsu Town provide examples of how robust sanitation systems can deliver economic and environmental benefits. This publication documents Japan’s experience in pursuing sustainable sanitation solutions in the context of economic development. Five case studies illustrate how sound sanitation policies are essential in achieving a nation’s growth. Produced by ADB in cooperation with Japan Sanitation Consortium, this publication also documents key policies and laws that enable the integration of sewerage systems and wastewater treatment facilities in development plans. It shares learnings on how the sanitation challenge can be met, not only at the community, but also at the national level.

 

ADB

Toward a National Eco-Compensation Regulation in the People’s Republic of China, Published 2016. ADB and the National Development and Reform Commission of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) undertook a study on eco-compensation regulations development in the country. The study examined the PRC’s theory, practice, and legislation governing eco-compensation in selected ecological areas to map out the scope and content of a national eco-compensation regulation. Pursuit of its higher agenda of ecological civilization and development of its national eco-compensation regulation will require the PRC to capture the diversity that subnational projects have tapped, integrate its experience with eco-compensation at all levels of government into a coherent national regulatory framework, and harmonize this framework with existing laws and other legal instruments.

 

ADB

2016 CTI Report to Ministers, November 2016. The CTI Annual Report to Ministers for 2016 outlines the Committee’s accomplishments and recommendations in the key priority areas of APEC’s Trade and Investment Liberalization and Facilitation (TILF) agenda in support of APEC’s 2016 priorities under the theme of “Quality Growth and Human Development”. Collective Action Plans (CAPs) in various Osaka Action Agenda (OAA) issue areas, which were first reported in 1996, continued to be the Committee’s main vehicle for advancing APEC’s trade and investment agenda.

 

APEC

Fact sheet: 2016 APEC Economic Policy Report, November 2016. This 2-page fact sheet provides an overview of the 2016 APEC Economic Policy Report (AEPR) which aims to promote greater understanding of the wide ranging benefits of service sector reforms.

 

APEC

2016 APEC Economic Policy Report, November 2016. The 2016 APEC Economic Policy Report, ‘Structural Reform and Services’, tackles a subject at the very heart of current growth, productivity and economic inclusion challenges facing the APEC region. The report consists of a policy framework chapter, which concludes with a set of important recommendations, and five case studies that provide an in depth analysis of the economic impact of specific services sector reforms:
• China: retail services
• Indonesia: air transport services
• Japan: financial services
• New Zealand: electricity retail services
• Chinese Taipei: testing and certification services

 

APEC

Fact sheet: 2016 APEC Senior Officials' Report on Economic and Technical Cooperation, November 2016. This 2-page fact sheet of the 2016 APEC Senior Officials' Report on Economic and Technical Cooperation highlights a summary of activities undertaken by SCE fora and an overview on ECOTECH project funding during the year.

 

APEC

APEC Senior Officials' Report on Economic and Technical Cooperation 2016, November 2016. This report attempts to capture some highlights of the activities at the Working Group/Task Forces level. It includes a summary of activities undertaken by SCE fora supporting the existing ECOTECH priorities based on the 2016 SCE Fora Report and other updates available. A brief overview on ECOTECH project funding has been also provided.

 

APEC

APEC's Bogor Goals Dashboard, November 2016. The purpose of the Dashboard is to provide easy-to-understand figures to track the advancement in areas critical to promoting greater regional economic integration, such as liberalization and facilitation of trade and investment. The intention is to display a set of harmonized indicators laying out the evolution across time of certain aspects of trade and investment liberalization and facilitation in quantitative terms...

 

APEC

Second-Term Review of APEC's Progress towards the Bogor Goals - Progress by Economy, November 2016. The analysis by individual economy highlighted their recent progress and identifying areas in which economies could make further improvements. These reports by economy were prepared with information from their Individual Action Plans and data from other sources such as international organizations and domestic government institutions...

 

APEC

Second-Term Review of APEC's Progress towards the Bogor Goals: APEC Region, November 2016. The Second-Term Review of Progress towards the Bogor Goals includes two sections: 1) the general assessment of the progress of the APEC region as a whole; and 2) the review of each economy’s recent progress in the areas included in the Osaka Action Agenda...

 

APEC

APEC Regional Trends Analysis Rethinking Skills Development in the Digital Age, November 2016. This issue of APEC Regional Trends Analysis features two chapters: (1) Rethinking Skills Development in the Digital Age; and (2) Continued Growth amid Persistent Global Weakness...

 

APEC

APEC in Charts 2016. An annual PSU publication, APEC in Charts provides a graphical overview of the APEC region’s economic, trade and investment performance as well as in areas related to APEC 2016 priorities.

 

APEC

APEC Supply Chain Connectivity Framework Action Plan 2010-2015: Final Assessment, November 2016. The report presents the final assessment results of the APEC Supply Chain Connectivity Framework Action Plan (SCFAP). The SCFAP aims to improve the performance of supply chains in the APEC region, with a target of 10 percent reduction in time, cost and uncertainty by 2015. The results show that some progress has been made in reducing time and cost for traders. Nevertheless, gaps remain and these should be addressed in the next phase of the SCFAP. The second phase should also address emerging areas in the global supply chain such as e-commerce, digital customs and cybersecurity.

 

APEC

Survey of Regulatory Measures in Environmental Services, November 2016. Prepared in support of the APEC Environmental Services Action Plan, this report presents an overview of regulatory measures for environmental services in APEC economies. It includes a summary of the scope and coverage of services and measures; an overview of the institutional frameworks, the incidence of regulatory measures and the extent of liberalisation in trade agreements of environmental services identified across APEC economies; and summary outcomes of measures identified in each APEC economy. While the findings show considerable variations across the member economies, some trends are apparent. One such trend is that while not all economies have committed to market opening of environmental services in the WTO GATS, all have improved on WTO liberalisation outcomes in subsequent FTAs.

 

APEC

Exploring Quantitative Indicators for Effective Monitoring of APEC-wide Progress on Structural Reform under RAASR 2016-2020, October 2016. This report proposes possible external baseline indicators to be used to monitor APEC-wide progress on structural reform under the Renewed APEC Agenda for Structural Reform (RAASR). The report is structured as follows: Chapter 1 gives a brief evolution of structural reform initiatives in APEC; Chapter 2 provides general overview of how the review process of RAASR can possibly be conducted as    well as the thought process behind the identification of the proposed external indicators; Chapter 3 lists these indicators and provide additional details for each, including the relevant RAASR pillars addressed by the indicator, possible actions at economy level that may impact the indicator, its strengths and limitations; and Chapter 4 concludes the report.

 

APEC

Enabling Legal Compliance & Cross-Border Data Transfers with the APEC Cross-Border Privacy Rules (CBPR), July 2016. This report summarizes the outcomes of the CBPR workshop held in Singapore outlining the purpose, benefits and workings of the CBPR system

 

APEC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

November, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

Good Practices on Gender Diversity in Corporate Leadership for Growth, November 2016. This report presents the outcome of a survey that was undertaken to establish how women directors enhance corporate values in companies within the APEC region. The mechanism of improving corporate values through the appointment of women directors were demonstrated. Case studies were also conducted through interviews with leading companies in APEC (Canada; Japan; Korea; Malaysia; Mexico; the Philippines; and Viet Nam) that are considered to have achieved positive impact on growth through gender diversity. 

 

APEC

Independent Assessment Report of the Policy Partnership on Women and the Economy (PPWE), November 2016. This report presents the results of an independent assessment of the APEC Policy Partnership for Women and the Economy (PPWE) to ensure economic and technical cooperation (ECOTECH) activities are targeted, effective, efficient, and make the best use of resources. This independent assessment also recommends actions to ensure that PPWE is responsive to APEC’s current priorities and contributes to the achievement of its overall vision and objectives.

 

APEC

Independent Assessment Report of the Agricultural Technical Cooperation Working Group (ATCWG) and the High Level Policy Dialogue on Agricultural Biotechnology (HLPDAB), November 2016.
APEC sought an independent review of the operations and structure of the ATCWG and HLPDAB in order to ensure that their economic and technical cooperation (ECOTECH) activities are targeted, effective, efficient, and make the best use of resources. This report recommends actions to ensure that the ATCWG and HLPDAB respond to APEC’s current priorities and contribute to the achievement of its overall vision and objectives.

 

APEC

Exploration on Strengthening of Maritime Connectivity, November 2016. This report attempts to identify the issues and challenges faced by APEC economies in the process of developing maritime connectivity and puts forward recommendations aimed at future efforts to be made by APEC. It outlines possible directions for addressing the issues on port congestion, shipment information sharing, trade liberalization, trade facilitation and relation with IMO rule. In addition, this study also covers the perspective of GVCs and is expected to be contributive to the implementation of “APEC Strategic Blueprint for Promoting Global Value Chains Development and Cooperation”.

 

APEC

APEC SME Internationalization Model Indices: Development and Application, November 2016. Internationalization is important for SMEs, and needs for government support policies are increasing in order to facilitate and diversify SME internationalization. As such, it is essential to objectively assess SME internationalization levels using model indices, on which potential problems in internationalization must be addressed. In this respect, APEC has stressed the importance of studies on the development of model indices and data collection regarding SME internationalization...

 

APEC

Cyber-Energy Nexus Study: Best Practices, Opportunities, and Challenges for Smart Energy Technology, July 2016. This timely study fills a number of important gaps in understanding current APEC energy grid cybersecurity efforts and presents a number of related collaborative efforts for future examination. Smart energy technology and networked control systems are becoming integral parts of the energy value chain globally. These critical energy infrastructure assets are vulnerable to cyber and physical attacks and lack secure interoperability policies and standards. The U.S. Department of Energy, together with Singapore Energy Market Authority, led the first Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) study exploring smart energy technology cyber security trends, policies and standards in the region...

 

APEC

Seminar "Social Inclusion of People with Disabilities through Access to Telecommunications", June 2016. This report summarizes the outcomes and recommendations from the seminar, “Social Inclusion of People with Disabilities through Access to Telecommunications”, which addressed topics related to i) Access to ICT as a fundamental right of PWD; ii) Policies and regulations on access to telecommunications for PWD; iii) Best practices on regulating access to telecommunications for PWD; and iv) Achievements, difficulties and challenges for PWD in the APEC Region.

 

APEC

Trends in Southeast Asia 2016 #15: The Geopolitics of Xi Jinping’s Chinese Dream: Problems and Prospects. Viewing China's current relations with neighbours in the East Asian littoral from geopolitical and macrohistorical perspectives enables us to evaluate China's current prospects for advancing its "peaceful rise". Today the ruling Communist Party of China (CPC) articulates a Chinese Dream that envisions a new age of Asian predominance to match China's memory of past golden ages. To realize this dream, China seeks geopolitical predominance in the East Asian littoral. Judging from the foreign policy goals and behaviour pursued by Xi Jinping, China appears likely to govern the region according to its core interests even when this may require other states to give up their lawful sovereign rights and prerogatives...

 

ISEAS

America's 'Maginot Line': A Study of Static Border Security in an Age of Agile and Innovative Threats, November 2016. Borders and border security are once again becoming increasingly important to the nation state. Many take a default position that our coastline is our border and that border security involves merely police, security guards and immigration or customs officials. But Australia’s geography no longer provides the physical barrier from the outside world that it once did. This strategy provides a case study analysis of post-9/11 changes to US border security policies. It examines each of America’s different borders: the friendly northern borders, maritime borders, and the militarised southern border. It provides recommendations for Australia’s border security.

 

ASPI

ASPI at 15, October 2016. ASPI was registered as a wholly government-owned company on 22 August 2001, but it was several years earlier when Ian McLachlan, the first Defence Minister of the Howard government, saw the need to establish an institute to provide an alternate source of advice on defence and strategic policy. The articles in this Strategic Insights paper, originally published on the ASPI Strategist website in August 2016, come from a number
of individuals who deeply wanted the institute to succeed and indeed were prepared to invest their own effort to make it happen. While turning 15 is a good time to reflect on growth and early experiences, ASPI’s most productive years are still ahead of it.

 

ASPI

The Wattle and the Olive: A New Chapter in Australia and Israel Working Together, October 2016. The relationship between Australia and the small Jewish state is warm and close, despite occasional problems. Australia has always been seen as friendly by Israel, although it’s rarely been a major focus of policy efforts in Jerusalem. While there’s a mutual recognition of shared values and a reasonably close bilateral working relationship, there hasn’t been sufficient recognition given by either state to how each contributes to the other’s national interests. This paper considers common strategic interests, cooperation on traditional security issues and non-traditional security matters and puts forward recommendations for enhancing the relationship.

 

ASPI

Economic Migration and Australia in the 21st Century, October 2016. This Analysis assesses the benefits and challenges of contemporary economic immigration in Australia. While the policy arrangements underpinning economic immigration have undergone significant changes in recent decades, Australian governments have managed this transition successfully. Increased intakes of skilled immigrants have assisted structural transitions in Australia’s economy, delivered tangible benefits in addressing challenges related to population, and produced positive effects in relation to fiscal impact, productivity, and immigrants’ employment and labour market outcomes...

 

Lowy

Myanmar’s Evolving Relations: The NLD in Government, October 2016. The National League for Democracy’s (NLD) landslide victory in Myanmar’s November 2015 general election prompted celebrations around the world. Following a nervous, but successful, transition to ensure the transfer of power, the first five months in office of the NLD government were an opportunity for Myanmar’s democratically elected administration to reinforce its legitimacy and set a foundation for long-term policy success. This paper charts developments from the transfer of power up until the eve of the Union Peace Conference – 21st Century Panglong—a significant step in the peace process—on August 30, 2016. It describes the formation of the NLD government, the changing role of the legislature, the institutionalizing of Aung San Suu Kyi’s position “above the president,” as well as accords specific attention to the peace process (including Rakhine state affairs) as a top policy priority for the NLD as it sought to revitalize efforts initiated under the previous administration...

 

ISDP

Under the Radar: Georgia’s October 2016 Elections, October 2016. Georgia will hold parliamentary elections on October 8, 2016, which will be key to deciding the country’s future development and its strategic trajectory. Economic problems, especially unemployment and prices, dominate the minds of the Georgian electorate. A large majority thinks the country is headed the wrong direction. The Georgian Dream government has lost the support it had four years ago; yet the electorate appears to lay equal if not more blame for Georgia’s problems on the predecessor UNM government. Palpable anger and frustration is visible in surveys, where practically all political figures have negative approval ratings. This makes the election an opportunity for “third” parties and new po-litical forces, if they are given the space to take advantage. These range from reliably pro-Western forces like the Free Democrats; to populists like the Labor party; unknown quantities like the State for People alli-ance; and outright anti-Western ones like the Alliance of Patriots...

 

ISDP

Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2016 (Highlights, and Full Report):
  • Part I: Sustainable Development Goals Trends and Tables
  • Part II: Regional Trends and Tables
  • Part III: Global Value Chains

Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2016 covers 48 economies: Afghanistan, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China, Cook Islands, Fiji Islands, Georgia, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, Republic of Korea, Kyrgyz Republic, Lao, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nauru, Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Taipei, Tajikistan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, and Viet Nam.

 

ADB

Monetary Authority of Singapore: Macroeconomic Review, Volume XV, Issue 2, October 2016 (Full Report, Presentation Slides for Briefing):  

MAS

The High Stakes for Southeast Asia of the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election, October 2016. Asad Latif, Associate Fellow at the ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute in Singapore, explains that “Southeast Asians hope that Americans choose their next leader wisely to build on enduring ties with the United States.”

 

EWC

What Happens in the South China Sea, Matters in the East China Sea: Japan’s Reaction to the South China Sea Arbitration Ruling, October 2016. Matthew Short, researcher at the East-West Center in Washington, explains that “Pushing Japan to be a more proactive member of the international system, Abe has advocated for and employed Japan as a guardian of global commons, especially the maritime commons, to ensure they remain open and beneficial to everyone.”

 

EWC

Australia’s Contentious Strategy in the South China Sea, October 2016. Orrie Johan, researcher at the East-West Center in Washington, explains that “Australia does not have to choose between the U.S. and China. Turnbull seems to be following this approach by showing the U.S. that it supports American freedom of navigation operations and by showing China that Australia will not participate in any FONOPs itself.”

 

EWC

A China Perspective: North Korea's Nuclear Tests Reshaping Northeast Asian Security, October 2016. Liang Yabin, Research Fellow of the Pangoal Institution and Associate Professor at the Party School of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, explains that “Nuclear weapons greatly improve the geo-strategic position of the DPRK in Northeast Asia, which also increases the possibility of reaching a compromise and exchange of interests between the U.S. and the DPRK.”

 

EWC

China's Bold Strategy for Semiconductors--Zero-Sum Game or Catalyst for Cooperation? September 2016. This paper explores whether China's bold strategy for semiconductors will give rise to a zero-sum game or whether it will enhance cooperation that will benefit from increased innovation in China. As the world's largest producer and exporter of electronic products, China is by far the top market for integrated circuits (ICs), accounting for nearly a third of global demand. Yet its ability to design and produce this critical input remains seriously constrained. Despite decades and many billions of dollars of state-led investment, China's domestic production of semiconductors covers less than 13% of the country's demand...

 

EWC

International Trade and Exchange Rate, October 2016. From a longer-term perspective, however, global trade volume has not deviated much from its long-term trend. Postglobal financial crisis, the exchange rate volatility has grown significantly. Countries with appreciating currencies show rising import intensity and significant export growth. However, the impact of currency depreciation on trade has become much smaller postglobal financial crisis. All these analyses suggest that competitive devaluations may not spur exports as much as earlier expected—and it may further undermine the nascent recovery of international trade.

 

ADB

Dealing with Quantitative Easing Spillovers in East Asia: The Role of Institutions and Macroprudential Policy, October 2016. This paper explores the impact of advanced countries’ quantitative easing on emerging market economies (EMEs) and how macroprudential policy and good governance play a role in preventing potential financial vulnerabilities. We used confidential locational bank statistics data from the Bank for International Settlements to examine whether quantitative easing has caused an appreciation of EMEs’ currencies and how it has done so, and whether this has in turn boosted foreign-currency borrowing, thus making EMEs vulnerable to balance sheet and maturity mismatch problems...

 

ADB

Human Capital and Urbanization in the People’s Republic of China, October 2016. The relationship between human capital development and urbanization in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) is explored, highlighting the institutional factors of the hukou system and a decentralized fiscal system. Educated workers disproportionately reside in urban areas and in large cities. Returns to education are significantly higher in urban areas relative to those in rural areas, as well as in large, educated cities relative to small, less-educated cities. In addition, the external returns to education in urban areas are at least comparable to the magnitude of private returns...

 

ADB

Housing System and Urbanization in the People’s Republic of China, October 2016. This paper examines how transformations in the housing system in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) influence the PRC pattern of urbanization. It first discusses how housing policies determine the supply and demand of housing in urban PRC and subsequently analyzes how the changes in the mode of housing provision have affected rural–urban migration, intercity labor mobility, the financing of urban infrastructure, and general urban economic activities in the PRC. The PRC experience of the interaction between the housing system and urbanization is unique, but it clearly indicates that an effective housing system that can responsively provide adequate and affordable housing is crucial to the success of inclusive and equitable urbanization.

 

ADB

Government Decentralization Program in Indonesia, October 2016. Without much preparation, Indonesia, in 2000, at a stroke replaced the previous system of centralized government and development planning with a wide range of decentralization programs. The reforms gave greater authority, political power, and financial resources directly to regencies and municipalities, bypassing the provinces. The powers transferred include those of executing a wide range of responsibilities in the areas of health, primary and middle-level education, public works, environment, communication, transport, agriculture, manufacturing, and other economic sectors...

 

ADB

Decline in Oil Prices and the Negative Interest Rate Policy in Japan, October 2016. In April 2013, the Bank of Japan (BOJ) introduced an inflation target of 2% with the aim of overcoming deflation and achieving sustainable economic growth. But due to lower international oil prices it was unable to achieve this target and was forced to take further measures. Hence, in February 2016, the BOJ adopted a negative interest rate policy by massively increasing the money supply through purchasing long-term Japanese government bonds (JGBs). The BOJ had previously only purchased short-term government bonds, a policy that flattened the yield curve of JGBs. On the one hand, banks reduced the number of government bonds they purchased because short-term bond yields had become negative. Even the interest rates of long-term government bonds up to 15 years became negative...

 

ADB

Case Study of Central and Local Government Finance in Japan, September 2016. This paper aims to provide an overview of the basics of Japan’s local public administration and finance system and to analyze how Japan’s municipalities restore their fiscal balance after a fiscal shock. In Japan, local governments play a major role in redistribution. Combined with regional disparities in tax capacities and an inflexible local tax system, there is a large vertical fiscal gap in Japan between the central and local governments—a gap that necessitates the transfer of funds from central to local governments. Under this system, the fiscal adjustments in Japan’s municipalities occur mainly via changes in government investment, and they account for 63%–95% of adjustments in permanent unit innovations in grants and own-source revenue. In contrast to the role of expenditure, the municipalities’ own-source revenue plays a limited role in balancing the local budget...

 

ADB

Improving Financial Inclusion in Asia and the Pacific: Constraints, Applicability, and Lessons from Digital Financial Services, September 2016. The paper focuses on the challenge of understanding new consumer risks which arise when using DFS and how financial consumer protection frameworks can be strengthened to address these risks. It also includes case studies of countries’ approaches to financial consumer protection and DFS in Asia and the Pacific. The countries reviewed include the Philippines, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, and Fiji. These case studies highlight a common trend across countries—financial consumer protection frameworks are being viewed as one component of broader national financial inclusion strategies. Frameworks are being strengthened as part of a heightened focus on financial education and by incorporating the latest research on financial inclusion and on how best to reach the unbanked.

 

ADB

The Housing Challenge in Emerging Asia: Options and Solutions, Published 2016. The Housing Challenge in Emerging Asia: Options and Solutions provides new insights and ideas to best design and implement housing policies aimed at improving access to affordable and adequate housing. The book offers an innovative theoretical framework to conceptualize and analyze various housing policies. It also critically reviews housing policies of various countries and draws lessons for others. The countries studied include advanced economies within and outside Asia, such as Japan, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States, as well as emerging countries within Asia, such as the People’s Republic of China and India.

 

ADB

Gender Equality and Women’s Rights in Myanmar: A Situation Analysis, Published 2016. Myanmar is making historical progressive reforms. Rapid political, economic, and social transition is taking the country and its 51.4 million citizens in new directions. If the reforms are to equally benefit women and men and girls and boys, fundamental changes are needed in how women and their needs are included in Myanmar’s new governance and in policy, planning, and decision-making processes...

 

ADB

The Emergence of Pacific Urban Villages: Urbanization Trends in the Pacific Islands, Published 2016. Village-like settlements such as squatter and informal settlements are seen as a type of urban village. The report examines the evolution of different types of settlement commonly known as native or traditional villages, and the more recent squatter and informal settlements. It looks at the role these and other urban villages play in shaping and making Pacific towns and cities and presents key actions that Pacific countries and development partners need to consider as part of urban and national development plans while achieving a more equitable distribution of the benefits of urbanization.

 

ADB

Case Study on the Role of Services Trade in Global Value Chains: Telecommunications in Papua New Guinea, September 2016. This case study is one out of the four which examines the role of services in global value chains (GVCs), particularly the effects market-opening services development have had on the economy and GVCs. This case study examines the effects of the deregulation of Papua New Guinea’s (PNG) mobile telecommunications sector, a process which began in 2007. It is estimated that the effects of liberalisation in this sector include a boost to GDP of up to 2.3% and total cost savings of 2% to 5% for businesses. Mobile telecommunications have also helped deliver improvements in safety and financial transparency...

 

APEC

Case Study on the Role of Services Trade in Global Value Chains: Transport Services in Chile, September 2016. This case study is one out of the four which examines the role of services in global value chains (GVCs), particularly the effects market-opening services development have had on the economy and GVCs. Focusing on the transport services in Chile, this case study finds that Chile has undertaken substantial transport sector liberalization over recent years. On the basis of an econometric model, it is concluded that the combination of transport sector reform efforts in Chile perhaps contributed to increase GVC performance by around 7%...

 

APEC

Manual on Good Practices to Improve the Supply Chain of Marine Products from the Subsistence Fishery Sector in the Asia Pacific Region, September 2016. Small-scale fisheries are highly dynamic, labour intensive and usually not integrated with local marketing arrangements. Small-scale fishers, their families and communities are critically dependent on fish for their food and livelihood security and are extremely vulnerable to external pressures and shocks. Products originating from subsistence or small-scale fisheries require good handling practices along the supply chain since up to 30% of the catch in some cases is lost due to poor handling practices. This manual is intended for use as a training aid to help introduce and explain post-harvest fishing topics to subsistence fisher folk and others actors in the coastal fisheries value chain...

 

APEC

APEC Workshop on Promoting SMEs' Integration into Regional and Global Environmental Goods and Services Markets, July 2016. This report outlines the presentations and discussions of the APEC Workshop on Promoting SMEs’ Integration into Regional and Global Environmental Goods and Services (EGS) Markets. Initiated by Viet Nam, the workshop provided an overview of the regional and global EGS markets; challenges, opportunities, and critical issues for facilitating SMEs in environmental goods and services markets; advantages of trade agreements on place; experiences in promoting SMEs’ participation into regional and global EGS markets in terms of regulations, incentives, facilitation, critical issues, etc; and case studies of SMEs’ integration into regional and global EGS markets.

 

APEC

Promoting the Participation of Small and Medium Enterprises in the Global Textile and Apparel Value Chains, June 2016. The studies provide insights on the textile and apparel industry of the four APEC member economies, including a diagnostic of the current state-of-play of SMEs integration into GVCs, government policies and programs, specific barriers that SMEs face upon attempting to join GVCs, and a series of recommendations and concrete action plans. The studies identify and categorize numerous institutions and frameworks created to support SMEs indirectly or directly, and how SMEs utilize government supports and engage with the rules of new model of trade integration.

 

APEC

Compendium of Energy Efficiency Policies of APEC Economies, April 2016. The Compendium of Energy Efficiency Policies of APEC Economies intends to promote information sharing of energy efficiency and energy conservation policies and practices across APEC economies under a common format. The report contains information on energy efficiency policies and initiatives in all APEC economies (with the exception of Papua New Guinea) based on the responses provided by each economy to a questionnaire.

 

APEC

Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 2011-2016  

Nanzan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

  

 
 

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