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We index full-text journals with open access platforms in our NEW Asia-Studies Full-Text Plus section. Here is the list of journals available.

 
 

 

 
 

 

 
 

 

 
 

June, 2016 Current Topics

 

Source

 

 

 

 

Monitoring Regional Economic Integration in Asia, June 2016. Given the diversity of Asia and the capacity constraints of countries in the region to manage integration, building an integrated Asian market is not easy. It requires not only the ability to implement initiatives to support the markets, but also a high level commitment by countries to ensure that policies are supportive of integration. Because regional economic integration is a complex process, there is a need to understand how the process works so that policy makers are better informed of its outcomes and to guide them in formulating integration-related policies. Hence, monitoring regional economic integration...

 

ADB

The Development Dimension of E-Commerce in Asia: Opportunities and Challenges, June 2016. E-commerce is the sale and purchase of goods and services through electronic networks and the internet, encompassing a broad range of commercial activity. While widespread adoption of e-commerce in advanced economies is evident, physical and institutional barriers to its application in developing countries must first be overcome. Governments, multilateral organizations, and the private sector must cooperate in fostering an environment that is conducive to its implementation...

 

ADB

Contingent Claims Analysis of Sovereign Debt Sustainability in Asian Emerging Markets, June 2016. Contingent claims analysis applied to Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand shows no particular vulnerability to sovereign debt distress during recent years. However, the highly volatile “distance to distress” measure suggests that any of these countries may fall victim to a sudden loss in market confidence. For example, the value of Indonesia’s sovereign assets dropped to just two standard deviations above its repayment obligations during the 2013 Fed taper tantrum, causing capital outflows and currency depreciation. Generally, we find that contingent claims analysis and market-based risk measures well complement conventional debt sustainability analysis for Asia...

 

ADB

Divergence of Human Capital in Cities in the People’s Republic of China: Exploring Complementarities and Spatial Agglomeration of the Workforce with Various Skills, June 2016. Complementarity between a low-skilled and a high-skilled workforce can promote and improve labor productivity in the cities in the People’s Republic of China. In cities, complementarity between a low-skilled and a high-skilled workforce can promote each other to improve labor productivity. In this study, we used earlier census data and 1% population survey data to examine the distribution of the skilled workforce in cities in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) along with its changes, and drew the following three conclusions...

 

ADB

The Pillars of Potential Growth and the Role of Policy: A Panel Data Approach, May 2016. This paper looks into possible determinants of potential output growth. Findings suggest that factors such as tertiary level education and the technology gap with the US, among others, significantly affect potential growth output. The authors use Bayesian Model Averaging on panel data for 70 economies to examine the robustness of possible determinants of potential output growth. The robust determinants are subsequently used to analyze their magnitude of impact on potential output growth...

 

ADB

High-Speed Railroad and Economic Geography: Evidence from Japan, May 2016. Surging high-speed railroad investments may encourage the formation of megacities due to further agglomeration in service industries. This can have profound implications for urban policies on society, demographics, and environment. We study whether high-speed railroad (HSR) polarizes or balances economic geography using the 1982 opening of two major HSRs in Japan (Shinkansen). We find that both agglomeration and decentralization could occur. While service industry tends to agglomerate toward the core city, manufacturing industry may decentralize toward peripheral cities...

 

ADB

Impact of Infrastructure Investment on Tax: Estimating Spillover Effects of the Kyushu High-Speed Rail Line in Japan on Regional Tax Revenue, May 2016. This paper analyzes the impact of infrastructure investment on tax revenues and on the regional economy by studying the effect of the Kyushu high-speed rail line (shinkansen train) in Japan. The effects of the Kyushu high-speed rail line on the economy has often been debated. We estimated its impact in the Kyushu region by using the difference-in-difference method, and compared the tax revenues of regions along the railway line with other regions that were not affected by it...

 

ADB

Manufacturing as the Key Engine of Economic Growth for Middle-Income Economies, May 2016. This paper revisits the role of the manufacturing sector during the middle-income stage. By exploiting a large dataset that covers internationally comparable sectoral information, we prove that the manufacturing sector is imbued with three important characteristics. First, for middle-income economies, manufacturing pulls along services, instead of the other way around. A decline in the manufacturing sector growth rate will negatively affect the growth rate of the services sector, in both the short-run and long-run meanings...

 

ADB

Reviving Lakes and Wetlands in the People's Republic of China, Volume 3: Best Practices and Prospects for the Sanjiang Plain Wetlands, Published 2016. The Sanjiang Plain in Heilongjiang Province is one of the People’s Republic of China’s richest areas in flora and fauna. However, the wetlands have shrunk to a fifth of their original size in the last 5 decades. The Sanjiang Plain wetlands are among the most important wetlands in the People’s Republic of China with unique habitats, species, and ecology. There is a considerable body of literature devoted to various aspects of the Sanjiang Plain wetlands including their ecological values...

 

ADB

Urban Development in the Greater Mekong Subregion, Published 2016. Urbanization is set to play an ever greater role in the development of the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries, transforming their economies and providing support to green economic growth. With urbanization levels still averaging about 30% in Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries, gross domestic product contributions of towns and cities have already reached 50%–60%...

 

ADB

How Inclusive is Inclusive Business for Women? Examples from Asia and Latin America, Published 2016. Inclusive businesses are bringing positive change to women’s lives. However, companies need to understand and address systemic issues of gender inequality to maximize financial return and social impact. Inclusive businesses are commercially viable business models that provide in-scale innovative and systemic solutions to problems relevant to the lives of low-income people...

 

ADB

Pacific Energy Update 2016. The Pacific region faces a unique set of energy challenges. Its limited supply of domestic fossil fuel resources has led to a historical dependence on imported fuels and a corresponding vulnerability to fluctuating energy prices. At the same time, outdated power infrastructures, geographical constraints, small populations, and limited generation capacity lead to high electricity tariffs (or costly subsidies), transmission and distribution losses, and low electrification rates in a number of Pacific developing member countries...

 

ADB

Pacific Transport Update 2015. ADB is currently implementing transport projects and technical assistance in eight Pacific DMCs—Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, and Vanuatu. Investing in infrastructure development in the Pacific region is a key priority, and the transport sector comprises the largest proportion of ADB’s Pacific portfolio. ADB’s Pacific Approach, 2010–2014 emphasizes the need to continue support in the transport sector to improve connectivity via multimodal networks, while recognizing the need to ensure that investments in the sector are made more resilient against natural disasters and the effects of climate change...

 

ADB

Selected Articles of Virginia Review of Asian Studies 2016 (Full Report):  

VRAS

Australia-India Relations: Trends and the Prospects for a Comprehensive Economic Relationship, Published 2016. Given the political will shown at the top level from both the governments for a Comprehensive Economic Co-operation Agreement (CECA), it is imperative to study the trends and prospects for the investment and economic relationship between Australia and India.BETWEEN Australia-INDIA with India. This paper examines the sectors which need to be synergised for a comprehensive Australia-India economic relationship, namely the resources and energy, agriculture and food, education and tourism, health and medical, manufacturing and infrastructure sectors...

 

ASARC

Structural Transformation in South Asia, Published 2016. This paper models the evolution and determinants of the shares of agriculture, manufacturing and services to GDP for 4 South Asian countries (Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan) for 55 years: 1960-2014. Determinants of these shares were classified into three broad categories “country fundamentals”, “policy” and “regional and reform dummies”. Several models including pooled OLS, GLS, panel and quantile regression are estimated. In general, the estimated models fit the data well...

 

ASARC

Agenda for Change 2016: Strategic Choices for the Next Government, June 2016. The defence of Australia's interests is a core business of federal governments. Regardless of who wins the election on July 2, the incoming government will have to grapple with a wide range of security issues. This report provides a range of perspectives on selected defence and national security issues, as well as a number of policy recommendations. Contributors include Kim Beazley, Peter Jennings, Graeme Dobell, Shiro Armstrong and ASPI analysts. ASPI produced a similar brief before the 2013 election. There are some enduring challenges, such as cybersecurity, terrorism and an uncertain global economic outlook. Natural disasters are a constant feature of life on the Pacific and Indian Ocean rim...

 

ASPI

Cyberspace and Armed Forces: The Rationale for Offensive Cyber Capabilities, May 2016. A serious approach to military modernisation requires countries to equip, train, and organise cyberforces for what has become an essential component of national defence and deterrence. A force without adequate cyber capabilities is more dangerous to itself than to its opponents. As nations move forward in rethinking the role and nature of their military forces, and as they study the problems of organisation, doctrine and use of cyber operations, they need to:

  • develop the full range of military cyber capabilities with both offensive and defensive application
  • create a centralised command structure for those capabilities, with clear requirements for political-level approval for action
  • embed those capabilities in doctrine and a legal framework based on international law.
 

ASPI

The Lion and the Kangaroo: Australia's Strategic Partnership With Singapore, May 2016. There is an enduring, two-way strategic underpinning to Australia’s interactions with Singapore, going beyond the recently agreed Comprehensive Strategic Partnership. Canberra is enhancing its economic access to Southeast Asia in return for granting Singapore greater access to military training areas in Australia. Yet Singapore’s stock is also rising, for Australia, in the context of Southeast Asia’s growing strategic profile. The stark fact is that Australia needs Southeast Asia more than it needs Australia. As a fellow ‘odd man out’ in its region, Singapore may be the exception to this rule because of its defence interest in Australia as a source of strategic depth. The city state can also add strategic depth for Australia. Capabilities aside, the most important attributes to this partnership are non-material: a shared mindset and a willingness to commit for the long term...

 

Lowy

Trends in Southeast Asia 2016 #7: Thailand’s Hyper-royalism: Its Past Success and Present Predicament. Thailand’s political impasse in the past decade is partly attributable to the royalist dominance of the parliamentary system, a dominance developed and strengthened under the cultural condition of hyper-royalism. Hyper-royalism is the politico-cultural condition in which royalism is intensified and exaggerated in public and everyday life. It is sanctioned by legislation that controls expressions about the monarchy in the public sphere. Hyper-royalism began in the mid-1970s as a measure to counteract perceived communist threats. Despite the fact that these threats had disappeared by the early 1980s, hyper-royalism persisted and was strengthened to support royalist democracy. Hyper-royalism generates the concept of the ideology...

 

ISEAS

Trends in Southeast Asia 2016 #6: China’s One Belt One Road: An Overview of the Debate. The debate over China’s One Belt One Road (OBOR) initiative has been lively and at times heated, both in China and internationally. In many ways, this is a reflection of the vagueness of the concept, and of its exceptionality. OBOR does not prioritize trade and investment concessions, which makes it essentially different from traditional regional economic cooperation models such as FTAs, the TPP and the RCEP. Instead, it emphasizes regional infrastructure connectivity. After China proposed the initiative, countries within the New Silk Road Economic Belt, especially the five Central Asian countries, responded enthusiastically and positively, while Southeast and South Asian countries, on the other hand, expressed more concerns and reservations about the initiative...

 

ISEAS

Trends in Southeast Asia 2016 #5: The State of Local Politics in Indonesia: Survey Evidence from Three Cities. Decentralization reforms in Indonesia have empowered local government with substantial powers. Local politics therefore constitutes a privileged arena for the study of democratic consolidation in this country. Research on local Indonesian politics is based almost exclusively on case-study analysis and qualitative work. As a result, while we have accumulated considerable knowledge on political elites, we know little about ordinary voters. This paper analyses a rich, original dataset with survey data from the cities of Medan in North Sumatra, Samarinda in East Kalimantan, and Surabaya in East Java. These three surveys, fielded shortly after the implementation of local direct elections on 9 December 2015, offer an unprecedented opportunity to learn about how various aspects of local politics are experienced by voters...

 

ISEAS

APEC Energy Demand and Supply Outlook (6th Edition) - Volume 2: Economy Reviews, May 2016. Recognising the rapid changes underway across the energy sector, the 6th edition of the APEC Energy Demand and Supply Outlook examines the Business-as-Usual (BAU) Scenario (the reference scenario) against three alternatives. The BAU reflects current policies and trends within the APEC energy sector; thus, its projections largely extend the past into the future. The alternatives are target-based and demonstrate what could be achieved under different policy frameworks.

 

APEC

APEC Energy Demand and Supply Outlook (6th Edition) - Volume 1, May 2016. In this sixth edition of the APEC Energy Demand and Supply Outlook, the Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre (APERC) first assesses a Business-as-Usual (BAU) Scenario, examining the potential to meet these challenges if current energy-related trends continue unchanged to the year 2040 (the Outlook period). The results fall far short of the above objectives as well as APEC’s energy goals. To address this gap, APERC modelled three alternative pathways: the Improved Efficiency Scenario to support APEC’s energy intensity reduction goal of 45% between 2005 and 2035; the High Renewables Scenario to outline a pathway to double the share of renewables in APEC between 2010 and 2030; and the Alternative Power Mix Scenario which evaluates trade-offs among the use of cleaner coal, gas and nuclear energy in the electricity sector.

 

APEC

APEC Regional Trends Analysis: Reducing Trade Costs in the Asia-Pacific, May 2016. APEC Regional Trends Analysis is a new publication of the PSU, combining two former reports “APEC Economic Trends Analysis and Key Trends” and “Developments Relating to Trade and Investment Measures”. The theme chapter addresses the topic on reducing trade costs in the Asia-Pacific. While measurements show that trade costs in APEC economies have decreased significantly between 2010 and 2014, there is a need to further understand the nature of these trade costs and why they have been falling. APEC has made considerable efforts to reduce trade costs, and more can be done to enhance these efforts...

 

APEC

Study of APEC Best Practices in Authorized Economic Operator (AEO) Programs, May 2016. This work updates the APEC Authorized Economic Operator (AEO) Compendium, assembled in 2010, with results of a new survey. APEC customs authorities were provided a survey questionnaire about their AEO program. Based on this new survey, a matrix was created to determine where APEC AEO programs converge with or diverge from each other. Respondents were subsequently given an opportunity to review and comment on preliminary drafts of this report, and to provide clarifying data and/or additional information. This final report incorporates and addresses all relevant comments from member economies, and suggests ways to improve APEC AEO convergence and regional economic integration.

 

APEC

Beyond Manufacturing: Developing the Service Sector to Drive Growth in the PRC, May 2016. As demand from global markets declines, slowing exports of manufactured goods from the People's Republic of China means the country must increasingly rely on domestic markets for growth. Unlike manufactured goods, services—those "intangible" products that include everything from transportation to scientific research to real estate services—are geared more toward domestic markets. Services, then, will be key to the rebalancing process. However, while the service sector has grown rapidly in the PRC, it continues to lag behind other countries at similar stages of development. In addition, the sector is dominated by traditional low-end types of services, rather than knowledge-intensive services...

 

EWC

Beyond Shared Interests: The US and the Evolution of Indian Military Strategy, May 2016. Arzan Tarapore, Asia Studies Visiting Fellow at the East-West Center in Washington, explains that “While shared interests between the US and India are real – and while they have driven some marginal evolution of Indian military posture and doctrine – they have not prompted an alignment of US and Indian military strategies.”

 

EWC

How Growth Deceleration in the People’s Republic of China Affects Other Asian Economies: An Empirical Analysis, May 2016. The paper employs two empirical methodologies to examine the question of how growth deceleration in the People's Republic of China (PRC) affects other Asian economies. A single-equation approach that captures the trade channel and a global vector autoregressive model that captures the effects beyond just the trade channel. The results confirm the non-negligible effect of the PRC deceleration on other economies, especially on East and Southeast Asia. The effect, however, is not always the dominating factor...

 

ADB

Exploring Risk-Adjusted Fiscal Sustainability Analysis for Asian Economies, May 2016. The paper explores risk-based fiscal analytical approaches to deal with risk and uncertainty when conducting debt sustainability analysis. It examines the types of vulnerability faced by emerging Asian economies and reviews a range of stochastic methods to incorporate the risks in a framework of fiscal sustainability analysis...

 

ADB

Socioeconomic Inequity in Excessive Weight in Indonesia, May 2016. Exploiting the Indonesian Family Life Survey, this paper studies the transition of socioeconomic related disparity of excess weight, including overweight and obesity, from 1993 to 2014. First, we show that the proportions of overweight and obese people in Indonesia increased rapidly during the time period and that poorer income groups exhibited the strongest growth of excess weight. Using the concentration index we find that prevalence of overweight and obesity affected increasingly poorer segments of Indonesian society...

 

ADB

Housing Policies in the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and the United States: Lessons Learned, April 2016. We focus on these three countries mainly due to the marked differences in their institutional settings. The UK is characterized by fiscal centralization and an extraordinarily rigid planning system. The consequences of this setting, which make housing supply extremely unresponsive to changes in house prices, are a high degree of urban containment, a severe housing affordability crisis, and a housing shortage, particularly for the young...

 

ADB

International Journal of Korean Studies, Volume XIX, Number 2, 2015  

IJKS

Rush to Judgment: Western Media and the 2005 Andijan Violence, May 2016 and The May 2005 Andijan Uprising: What We Know, May 2016. On May 13, 2005, in the Uzbek city of Andijan, an armed confrontation took place between Islamic militants and troops from the Ministry of Internal Affairs. In the course of the ensuing melee close to 200 persons from both sides were killed. There is no doubt that the militants initiated the confrontation by attacking local government offices and a maximum security prison, and that the appalling number of deaths was due to deliberate actions and poor judgment exercised by both sides. However, specific details on the day’s events were lacking at the time and, on some points, remain unclear and in dispute down to the present day...

 

ISDP

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

Monetary Authority of Singapore: Macroeconomic Review, Volume XV, Issue 1, April 2016 (Full Report, Presentation Slides for Briefing):  

MAS

MAS Survey of Professional Forecasters, March 2016. The March 2016 Survey was sent out on 24 February 2016 to a total of 28 economists and analysts who closely monitor the Singapore economy. This report reflects the views received from 24 respondents (a response rate of 86%) and does not represent MAS’ views or forecasts. GDP growth in Q4 2015 was stronger than expected. The Singapore economy expanded by 1.8% in Q4 2015, which was higher than the median forecast of 1.4% reported in the last survey. For 2015 as a whole, the economy recorded GDP growth of 2.0%, coming in slightly above the respondents’ median forecast of 1.9%. The economy is forecast to expand by 1.9% in 2016. In the latest survey, the forecasters expect growth to be around 1.9% in 2016, down from the previous forecast of 2.2%...

 

MAS

Singapore Corporate Debt Market Review 2015. Singapore’s corporate debt market grew strongly in 2014 despite uncertainties over the slowdown in Asia and divergent monetary policies of major economies. Total outstanding debt grew by 13% year-on-year to SGD 308 billion as at end of 2014, maintaining the pace of CAGR of 14% since 2010. Total corporate bond issuance volume grew at a CAGR of 35% since 2010 to hit a record high of SGD 200 billion in 2014. A persistently low interest rate environment continued to allow issuers to lock in longer term funding at relatively lower cost. Well-rated foreign financial institutions and companies have contributed significantly to the growth of Singapore’s debt capital market. For example, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) raised SGD 500 million during the year...

 

MAS

Trends in Southeast Asia 2016 #4: Myanmar’s Foreign Policy under President U Thein Sein: Non-aligned and Diversified. Given Myanmar’s strategic location and the wider great power competition in Southeast Asia, how the country positions itself vis-à-vis the major powers in the reform era currently underway will have considerable bearing for the international politics of Southeast Asia. Historically, Myanmar’s leaders have preferred an independent foreign policy that has also been couched in terms of neutralism and non-alignment. Following considerable tension between the stated principle of non-alignment and the practice of Myanmar’s foreign policy under the SLORC/SPDC regime given U.S. pressure on Naypyitaw especially in the mid-2000s, Myanmar’s threat perceptions vis-à-vis Washington have waned with the shift to the pragmatic, principled and calibrated engagement as favoured by President Obama...

 

ISEAS

Trends in Southeast Asia 2016 #3: Can Myanmar’s NLD Government Undo the Gordian Knot of Federalism and Ethnicity?. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi has said that peace is the first priority of the National League for Democracy (NLD) when it comes to power in April 2016. Both her remarks at the Union Peace Conference in January and the NLD election manifesto point to ethnicity and federalism being linked. This is a position similar to that taken by the outgoing Thein Sein government and the army. Now that the word “federalism” is accepted as useful in the debate over how to establish an end to Myanmar’s persistent civil wars with ethnically designated armed groups, it was hoped that some meeting of minds might take place...

 

ISEAS

Free Trade and the Future of Japan’s Agricultural Policy, May 2016. Kunio Nishikawa, associate professor in the College of Agriculture at Ibaraki University, explains that “Japan’s agriculture cannot be isolated from the tide of free trade. Japanese farmers will have to continue engaging in further structural adjustments.”

 

EWC

Domestic Forces behind Indonesia’s Paradoxical Maritime Policy, April 2016. Benjamin Nathan, researcher at the East-West Center in Washington, explains that “In the wake of recent events, Jokowi has had to weigh the benefits of appearing to be a dynamic leader against the risk of actually provoking a conflict over fishing rights.”

 

EWC

Constants and Changes in Vietnam’s Political Scene: What Will the New Term Bring? April 2016. Huong Le Thu, Researcher at the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS), Singapore, explains that “Economic and social policies are of utmost priority [for Vietnam’s new leadership] and with an increasingly informed, educated, and connected society, the expectations for delivery from the leadership will continue to rise.”

 

EWC

Can the US-ASEAN Connect Initiative Create Stronger US-ASEAN Economic Relations? April 2016. Sanchita Basu Das, Fellow and Lead Researcher (Economic Affairs) at the ASEAN Studies Centre, explains that “While for ASEAN, [US-ASEAN Connect] will make the region more competitive compared to China and India, for the US, a strong and developed ASEAN can help to diversify US investment in Asia and can lessen the influence of an economically rising China.”

 

EWC

US Economic Ties to ASEAN Demand a New Agility, April 2016. Shankaran Nambiar, Senior Research Fellow at the Malaysian Institute of Economic Research, explains that “US-ASEAN economic relations will receive a huge boost if the US makes a more concerted effort to address issues such as the financing of large-scale developmental projects, be they to improve regional connectivity, build roads and dams, or enhance capabilities in cyber security and satellite technology.”

 

EWC

Japan in Prime Minister Modi’s Vision for India, March 2016. Titli Basu, Researcher at the East Asia Centre of the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses in New Delhi, explains that “Modi’s aim is to bolster India’s emerging power status. For this, he is willing to boldly engage, but not align, with all regional actors including Japan to leverage partnerships without diluting the fundamental values of India’s foreign policy.”

 

EWC

Aligning Unevenly: India and the United States, Published 2016. In the early and mid-2000s, US policymakers anticipated India becoming one of America's top global partners. Have New Delhi's policies on key strategic issues actually aligned strongly with US objectives, as would be typical of close partners? An analysis of twelve prominent issues in US-India relations indicates that New Delhi's policies mostly converged moderately, rather than to a high extent, with US objectives. Specifically, the alignment between New Delhi's policies and US objectives was high or moderate-to-high on three issues—UN peacekeeping, nonproliferation export controls, and arms sales. It was moderate or low-to-moderate on six issues—China, Iran, Afghanistan, Indian Ocean security, Pakistan, and bilateral defense cooperation...

 

EWC

Demographic Change and Fiscal Sustainability in Asia, April 2016. Population structure affects government revenues as well as expenditures. For example, a younger population requires more public spending on education. The authors use a simple stylized model and National Transfer Accounts data set to simulate the effect of Asia’s population aging and economic growth on the region’s fiscal sustainability. While there are differences across countries, with some countries more affected than others, overall, the simulation results clearly indicate that demographic change will adversely affect Asia’s fiscal health. This points to a need for Asian countries to better understand and prepare for the fiscal impact of population aging...

 

ADB

Potential Growth, Misallocation, and Institutional Obstacles: Firm-Level Evidence, April 2016. Analysis of firm-level data for 62 developing countries highlights the importance of trade regulations, functioning of courts, and access to finance as key determinants of misallocation within countries. A key determinant of total factor productivity is misallocation: aggregate productivity losses arising from microeconomic distortions that prevent an efficient allocation of factors of production between firms...

 

ADB

The Republic of Korea’s Economic Growth and Catch-Up: Implications for the People’s Republic of China, April 2016. This study investigates the economic growth and catch-up of the Republic of Korea over the past half-century. The gap of output per worker between the Republic of Korea and United States has decreased rapidly, as the Republic of Korea’s lower per capita income, relative to its potential level, has led to higher growth, confirming the prediction of a conditional convergence theory. Cross-country regression further suggests that the Republic of Korea’s catch-up to the United States is also attributable to strong investment, lower fertility, greater trade openness, and improvements in human resources and rule of law, while improvement in democracy tends to slow the pace of the catch-up...

 

ADB

Housing Policy in the Republic of Korea, April 2016. This paper evaluates housing policy in the Republic of Korea over the past several decades, describes new challenges arising from the changing environment, and draws lessons for other countries. The most important goals of the housing policy have been to alleviate housing shortages and to stabilize housing prices. To achieve these goals, the government has been engaging the private sector while establishing public sector institutions and legal framework, providing developable land, and allocating housing units to intended target groups...

 

ADB

The Status of Financial Inclusion, Regulation, and Education in India, April 2016 . India’s financial inclusion agenda has witnessed a paradigm shift over the last decade, away from an emphasis on credit to a more comprehensive approach toward financial services (e.g., opening bank accounts and offering basic financial products, such as insurance). This paper describes the structure of banking and microfinance institutions in India relevant to the developing model of financial inclusion, as well as relevant regulatory structure and modes of delivery...

 

ADB

The Fiscal Risk of Local Government Revenue in the People’s Republic of China, April 2016. Since the Tax Sharing Reform in 1994, the local government revenue of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) has faced downward risk problems. This paper reviews the fiscal and taxation reforms in the central and local governments of the PRC and focuses on evaluating the effectiveness of fiscal transfers. We find that, to a certain extent, fiscal transfers significantly promote the construction of local infrastructure. Earmarked transfers had an effect, but lump-sum transfers did not. Results showed every 1% increase in earmarked transfers to be associated with a 5% increase in local spending on infrastructure...

 

ADB

Housing Policies in Hong Kong, China and the People’s Republic of China, April 2016. This paper analyzes the housing markets and housing policies in Hong Kong, China and the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Both markets face housing affordability problems due to limited land supply, for which the solutions vary considerably. Hong Kong, China has adopted a railway and property development model, which involves close collaboration between the government and property developers in compact urban areas, while leaving most greenbelts and surrounding islands underdeveloped. Although the PRC has pledged to maintain a minimum level of basic farmland to feed its large population, this target has often been compromised due to local governments’ fiscal constraints and growth concerns...

 

ADB

Housing Markets and Housing Policies in India, April 2016. Issues of housing in India are synonymous with ignorance of housing in active government involvement at the policy and program formulation levels. They are also due to the problems that unplanned urbanization, income disparity, poverty, illiteracy, and unemployment brought. These issues extenuated the housing problem, causing a housing shortage of 51 million in 2011. Though India has a long history of establishing policies, programs, and institutions to cater to housing, without allocating adequate resources, their impact in ameliorating the shortage has been marginal...

 

ADB

Major Challenges Facing Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in Asia and Solutions for Mitigating Them, April 2016. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are the backbone of the Asian economy. They make up more than 98% of all Asian businesses that provide two out of three private sector jobs in the region. Therefore, it is vitally important for Asia’s economic success to have fully functioning support measures for SMEs. However, SMEs face challenges from limited access to finance, lack of databases, low R&D expenditures, undeveloped sales channels, and low levels of financial inclusion, which are some of the reasons behind the slow growth of SMEs...

 

ADB

How Well Do Subnational Borrowing Regulations Work? March 2016. There are many positive aspects associated with subnational borrowing, including additional funding and promoting intergenerational equity. However, it may also endanger fiscal sustainability and macro stability due to moral hazard and soft budget constraints, making borrowing controls justified and common. This study reviews the different types of ex-ante and ex-post subnational borrowing regulations used in the international experience based on a large panel of developed and developing countries. Each type of regulations has advantages and disadvantages, with varying suitability to a country’s circumstances...

 

ADB

Promoting Better Lifetime Planning Through Financial Education, Published 2016. Surveys show that financial literacy levels are typically low around the world, despite the widening access to financial services and the increasing financial risks borne by households in many countries. This suggests that there will be mounting challenges for households and SMEs to invest wisely and effectively as societies age and governments shift away from defined benefit to defined contribution pension schemes. Individuals will increasingly have to make complex financial decisions to plan for their retirement and for a range of foreseen and unforeseen expenditures. All of these developments suggest that financial education should be part of a lifetime process that starts at an early age and is pursued throughout adulthood...

 

ADB

Southeast Review of Asian Studies, Volume 37, 2015  

SERAS

Shifting Waters: China's New Passive Assertiveness in Asian Maritime Security, April 2016. International concern over China’s assertive island-building campaign in the South China Sea overlooks a broader shift in its maritime security conduct. Chinese naval and coastguard forces are taking fewer tactical risks than a few years ago. Beijing now advocates confidence-building measures that until recently it had refused to consider. These developments are helping to lower the risks of maritime incidents, miscalculations, and accidental conflict. However, they are also facilitating China’s increasingly ‘passive assertive’ challenges to Asia’s maritime status quo — notably, its creation and militarisation of disputed islands, its establishment of new zones of military authority, and its conduct of expansive patrols in the East and South China Seas...

 

Lowy

2016 Lowy Institute Polling: Majority of Australians Favour a Local Build for Next-Generation Submarines. Australians have strong views on where Australia’s next submarines should be built, with the latest Lowy Institute polling finding that 70% of Australian adults want the submarines ‘built mainly in Australia, even if this will cost us more’. Only 26% say ‘the submarines should be built at the best possible price, even if this means they are mainly built overseas’. The site of the submarine construction project has been a topic of considerable public and political debate, with pressure to involve Australian shipbuilders and labour to stimulate the domestic economy and provide jobs...

 

Lowy

Bolstering National Disaster Resilience: What Can Be Done?. This report outlines the goals of ASPI’s Risk and Resilience Program. It introduces several broad areas to be covered and measures to strengthen mitigation, response and recovery options spanning the community, state and federal spheres. The program will contribute to our long-term thinking on how best to prepare for and recover from disasters.

 

ASPI

APEC Survey on Packaging and Labelling Requirements for Pre-packaged Food Products, April 2016. This report presents the results of the survey responded by fourteen member economies. The survey was designed to gather basic information on the requirements that need to be complied by relevant stakeholders when it comes to packaging and labelling requirements for pre-packaged food products in member economies.

 

APEC

Differences / Synergies Between Energy Efficiency Test Methods for Refrigerators in APEC Region and with the New IEC 62552 - Final Report, March 2016. The project aims to facilitate energy saving technology innovation for refrigerators and free trade in the APEC by helping harmonizing current testing methods with the IEC 62552:2015...

 

APEC

Differences / Synergies Between Energy Efficiency Test Methods for Refrigerators in APEC Region with the New IEC 62552 - Laboratory Test Report, March 2016. This report aims to serve as a reference for APEC economies to further evaluate the impacts of the new IEC 62552 on their current EE testing, if economies intend to adopt the standard in future.

 

APEC

2015 PSU Annual Report. The annual report summarises the operations and activities of the APEC Policy Support Unit (PSU) for the calendar year of 2015. It provides an overview of projects and activities undertaken in the year including a list of completed and current projects, and the audited financial statements.

 

APEC

Connectivity Map, October 2015. This “Connectivity Map” is a helpful tool to achieve the goal on strengthening connectivity. It shows the future transport network of the region. It is also useful to the private sector for considering investment in the region.

 

APEC

Public Private Partnership Best Practices, October 2015. The APEC Transportation Working Group Meeting (TPTWG) initiated a survey for compiling “PPP Best Practice” under the direction of TMM8. Aiming at promoting understanding on PPP in the transport sector and expanding it in the APEC region, the survey compiled transport PPP projects along with the analysis on transport-inherent risks as “PPP Best Practice”.

 

APEC

Quality Transport Vision, October 2015. A survey for Quality Transport Vision was conducted by the APEC Transportation Working Group (TPTWG) under the direction of TMM8. This report reflects the comments and feedback submitted by the economies following the TPTWG Meeting.

 

APEC

APEC SME Business Matching and Internship Consortium for Global Value Chain Integration, November 2015. This report summarizes the outcomes of the project, APEC SME Business Matching and Internship Consortium for Global Value Chain Integration, which looks into the GVCs in the APEC region specifically in the following industries: agriculture, food processing, handicrafts, electronics and automobile.

 

APEC

Workshop Report - Coordinated Research Initiative for the Implementation of Antimicrobial Resistance Control Strategies, March 2016. The APEC Workshop on Coordinated Research Initiative for the Implementation of Antimicrobial Resistance Control Strategies was held on 28, 29 and 30 October 2015 in Santiago, Chile. The outcomes of this workshop will be a capacity building training module on antimicrobial resistance for use by all APEC economies.

 

APEC

Research Outcomes: Summary of Research Projects 2015. This publication provides the key findings and/or recommendations from research projects that were undertaken in 2015.

 

APEC

Philippine Institute for Development Studies - Discussion Papers:  

PIDS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

Defence White Paper 2016: The Strategist Decides, April 2016. In this volume we’ve assembled a selection of articles written in the weeks after the release of DWP 2016. The papers cover the strategic outlook, force structure and military strategy, budget and Industry, and regional reactions to the White Paper. The authors are Robert Ayson, Ross Babbage, Kim Beazley, Andrew Davies, Malcolm Davis, Tobias Feakin, Tim Huxley, Peter Jennings, Mike Kalms, Rod Lyon, James Mugg, Benjamin Schreer, Ristian Atriandi Supriyanto, Mark Thomson, Feng Zhang.

 

ASPI

Peak Japan and Its Implications for Regional Security, March 2016. This paper examines Japanese security policy under Abe, identifies the constants and constraints that frame that policy, and attempts to project where Japan will go in the near-term future. Its conclusion may unnerve many: structural constraints in the Japanese economy, self-imposed limits deriving from Japanese national identity and an increasingly beleaguered polity will narrow Japanese options. The chief task of friends and allies of Japan, including Australia, will be to engage Tokyo and ensure that there’s a place for Japan in regional security policy.

 

ASPI

Hong Kong: High Frequency Macroeconomic Forecasts Current Quarter Model: 2016Q2, April 2016. According to its High Frequency Macroeconomic Forecast, real GDP is estimated to grow by 1.7% in 16Q1, when compared with the same period in 2015. In 16Q2, real GDP growth is expected to moderate to 1.4% when compared with the same period last year. We forecast Hong Kong GDP will grow by 1.5% in 2016 as a whole, slower than 2.4% growth in 2015.

 

HKU

Asian Development Outlook 2016 - Asia’s Potential Growth: Full Report and Highlights. ADB projects 5.7% growth for developing Asia in 2016 and 2017. Global headwinds notwithstanding, developing Asia will continue to contribute 60% of world growth, according to the Asian Development Outlook (ADO) 2016. Modest recovery in Southeast Asia and sustained growth in India will partly offset continued moderation in the People’s Republic of China and the associated spillover into neighboring economies. Risks to the growth outlook tilt to the downside: future US interest rate hikes that may intensify global financial volatility; a sharper-than forecast growth slowdown in the People’s Republic of China that would hurt regional exports and growth; emerging producer price deflation that may undermine growth in some economies; tepid prices for oil and other commodities; and El Niño.

  • Part 1: Rescuing Growth in Uncertain Times
  • Part 2: Asia’s Potential Growth
  • Part 3: Economic Trends and Prospects in Developing Asia:

    Central Asia: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekista.

    East Asia: People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong, China Republic of Korea, Mongolia, and Taipei,China.

    South Asia: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.

    Southeast Asia: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam.

    The Pacific: Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands,Timor-Leste, Vanuatu, North Pacific Economies, South Pacific Economies, and Small Island Economies.
 

ADB

Openness and Urbanization: The Case of the People’s Republic of China, March 2016. Urbanization usually occurs with structural transformation driven by a “push” from agricultural productivity growth and a “pull” from industrial productivity growth, and usually the former exceeds the latter. This paper presents a simple model to illustrate how the open policy in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) since 1979 reversed the pattern such that the “pull” effect dominated the “push” effect during the PRC’s structural transformation and urbanization. This model helps explain why the PRC, whose industrial productivity growth exceeds its agricultural productivity growth, has experienced a standard pattern of structural transformation. The paper also demonstrates how a developing country’s business services intensity increases with its urbanization.

 

ADB

Impact of the People’s Republic of China’s Growth Slowdown on Emerging Asia: A General Equilibrium Analysis, March 2016. This paper assesses the potential spillover effects of the PRC’s slowdown on its neighboring economies. As an important global and regional economic power, the PRC’s growth slowdown may cause large spillover effects to its neighboring economies. Using a multi-sectoral global computable general equilibrium model, this paper quantitatively investigates the impacts of a growth slowdown in the PRC for emerging Asian economies through trade linkages. The results suggest that a growth slowdown of 1.6 percentage points in the PRC would bring about a growth deceleration of 0.26 percentage points in developing Asia as a whole. However, the impacts vary dramatically by economy within developing Asia, reflecting their difference in economic and trade structure.

 

ADB

Moderating Growth and Structural Change in the People’s Republic of China: Implications for Asia and Beyond, March 2016. A gradual moderation in growth is currently underway in the People’s Republic of China (PRC). This is the result of a combination of factors, including a shrinking working-age population, the natural process of convergence and rising labor costs, and a structural shift toward consumption-led growth partly encouraged by government. It also reflects continued weakness in external demand and the working out of overcapacity in some sectors...

 

ADB

Housing Policies in Singapore, March 2016. Singapore has developed a unique housing system, with three-quarters of its housing stock built by the Housing & Development Board (HDB) and homeownership financed through Central Provident Fund (CPF) savings. As a result, the country’s homeownership rate of 90% is one of the highest among market economies. At different stages of its economic development, the Government of Singapore was faced with a different set of housing problems. An integrated land–housing supply and financing framework was established in the 1960s to solve the severe housing shortage. By the 1990s, the challenge was that of renewing aging estates and creating a market for HDB transactions. Housing subsidies in the form of housing grants were also introduced...

 

ADB

Forms of Government Decentralization and Institutional Quality: Evidence from a Large Sample of Nations, March 2016. This paper studies the effects of various forms of government decentralization on institutional quality across countries. Using corruption and the shadow economy to proxy for institutional quality, as well as three forms of government decentralization (i.e., virtual, physical, and fiscal), the econometric results show virtual decentralization to be the most effective in improving institutional quality. The effects on transition and countries in Asia are also considered.

 

ADB

The Role of Structural Transformation in the Potential of Asian Economic Growth, March 2016. This paper identifies the pattern of structural change that countries experience as they catch up from low income levels to the economic frontier, and examines how structural change contributes to both labor and total factor productivity. Using data for Asian countries the paper goes on to address the extent and form of structural change and its contribution to productivity growth since 1990, asking what order of magnitude the productivity effects are likely to be as Asian countries converge to the economic structure that characterizes middle-income and high-income countries.

 

ADB

The Determinants of Structural Transformation in Asia: A Review of the Literature, March 2016. This paper reviews the evidence on why the pace of structural transformation has differed widely across countries in Asia, with a specific focus on the People’s Republic of China, India, and Thailand. It argues that both government failures relating to the functioning of labor, land, and product markets, and market failures relating to coordination of investment, credit market imperfections, and human capital formation have been the primary causes of the slow pace of structural transformation in several Asian countries. The paper suggests that a specific focus is needed to reform policies that impede the functioning of labor, land, and product markets as well as on strengthening industrial and education policies to address specific market failures around investment coordination and human capital formation.

 

ADB

Analytical Tools for Measuring Poverty Dynamics: An Application Using Panel Data in the Philippines, March 2016. The Philippines has experienced rapid economic growth over the past decade. However, the benefits of economic expansion have not resulted to significant poverty reduction. This paper aims to measure poverty dynamics and identify the correlates of chronic and transient poverty in the Philippines. Findings suggest that the relative importance of transient poverty increases dramatically as the poverty line decreases or as the poverty measure becomes more sensitive to the welfare of the poorest of the poor.

 

ADB

Strengthening Public Pension Systems in Asia: Proceedings of the 2015 ADB-PPI Conference on Public Pension Systems in Asia, Focus: Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Viet Nam, and Thailand, Published 2016. Asia’s population is aging and old-age income support and social services is an emerging challenge. Strengthening pension systems in Asia is therefore a key concern for inclusive development in the region. In many Asian countries, pension systems are still inadequate in terms of both coverage and delivery of stipulated benefits. This is particularly so for smaller economies of Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam—or commonly referred to as CLMVT economies. A number of structural issues such as governance, regulation, and institutional and administrative capacities hinder their development. Well-designed, well-functioning, and sustainable pension systems will promote inclusive growth by supporting old-age income and providing the much-needed social safety net...

 

ADB

Fossil Fuel Subsidies in Asia: Trends, Impacts, and Reforms, Published 2016. Unsustainable budgetary cost of selling oil, gas, and coal at low prices has propelled energy subsidy reform in developing Asian economies. This report measures the size of associated subsidies on these fossil fuels including direct transfers, tax exemptions, subsidized credit, and losses of state enterprises in India, Indonesia, and Thailand. An analysis of complex interactions between economic, social, energy, and environmental issues shows that the initial rise in energy prices due to a reduction or removal of the subsidies will nudge households and businesses to shift to alternative fuels, make investment in clean energy attractive, increase energy supply, reduce energy shortages, and cut greenhouse gas emissions...

 

ADB

Emissions Trading Schemes and Their Linking: Challlenges and Opportunities in Asia and the Pacific, Published 2016. Asia and the Pacific has achieved rapid economic expansion in the recent years and has become a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. With more than half of the world’s population and high rates of economic growth, the region is especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change and therefore must play its part in cutting GHG emissions...

 

ADB

Achieving Universal Electricity Access in Indonesia, Published 2016.This report describes Indonesia’s electrification environment and identifies barriers to achieving universal electricity access. Principles drawn from international best practices such as government commitment, enabling institutional environments, adequate and sustainable financing, and stakeholder coordination are discussed in the context of Indonesia’s energy sector. The report gives recommendations for establishing service standards, streamlining financing, setting appropriate targets, and monitoring and evaluation, as well as near-term steps to help achieve universal electricity access.

 

ADB

Net Worth: Australia's Regional Fisheries Engagement, March 2016. This paper argues there’s a need for a whole-of-government approach to Australia’s external fisheries policy that recognises clear linkages between fisheries and foreign, trade, and strategic policy. Extending and complementing current stakeholder engagement practices is the key to this approach. Regional fishery management organisations (RFMOs) and arrangements allow Australia to promote a strong approach on sustainable and responsible fishing practices and develop regional instruments to protect our fish stocks and wider regional interests.

 

ASPI

Time to Start Worrying Again? Cross-Strait Stability After the 2016 Taiwanese Elections, March 2016. The study argues that the Taiwan Strait will remain dangerous and that Canberra needs to pay closer attention to the evolving cross-strait situation. Of crucial importance is the question of whether Australia should support its US ally in a future Taiwan contingency. The report calls for a comprehensive dialogue between Canberra and Washington to avoid a future ‘expectation gap’ on the Taiwan issue. As well, Australia should acknowledge Taiwan’s potentially constructive role in regional maritime territorial disputes. Finally, Canberra should proactively take steps to enhance Taiwan’s regional political and economic integration as a means to contribute to long-term cross-strait stability.

 

ASPI

Japan Versus Europe: The Quest to Build Australia's Future Submarine, February 2016. The building of Australia’s fleet of future submarines is likely to be the largest defence program in this country’s history. It will cost tens of billions of dollars and will run for decades. So it’s little wonder that it’s a recurring topic of interest on the pages of ASPI’s blog The Strategist. Our contributors continue to examine the topic from all angles, and this Strategic Insights collects selected pieces from the past twelve months. The authors are Kym Bergmann, Peter Briggs, Andrew Davies, Julian Kerr, Chris Mather, Hans J Ohff, Terence Roach, Benjamin Schreer, Tony Shepherd, Geoff Slocombe, Mark Thomson and Hugh White.

 

ASPI

The Future of Papua New Guinea: Old Challenges for New Leaders, March 2016. With its vast resources base and young population, the outlook for Papua New Guinea should be positive, but negative trends — in law and order, health, and education — do not augur well for the future. PNG’s next generation of leaders, under pressure to improve both service delivery and the quality of national institutions, should tackle a limited number of problems first to unblock barriers to progress. Australia, which has enduring interests in PNG’s success, should be creative in supporting emerging leaders, through government, private sector, and civil society links, to help them make a real difference.

 

Lowy

North Korea’s Audaciousness Changes the Status-Quo in Northeast Asia, March 2016. Eunjung Lim, lecturer at Johns Hopkins University, explains that “it is noteworthy and encouraging that Washington and Beijing reached an agreement on a draft resolution that was unanimously adopted at the UN Security Council.”

 

EWC

From Catching Up to Forging Ahead in Advanced Manufacturing—Reflections on China’s Future of Jobs, March 2016. This paper explores what we know about possible employment effects of the 10-year plan, issued by the State Council on May 19, 2015, entitled Made in China 2025. MIC2025 was designed to address China’s emerging labor shortage challenge. To achieve this goal, the plan seeks to boost labor productivity through an increased use of robots and through network-based upgrading of the entire industrial value chain and related services. The paper finds that until 2014, manufacturing has acted as an employment absorber in China...

 

EWC

Mega-FTAs and the Trade-Security Nexus: The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), March 2016. The rise of a multiplicity of diverse bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) has led countries to pursue mega-FTAs to manage the growing complexity of global trade arrangements. The US and China are promoting rival accords: the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), which would encompass 800 million people and almost 40 percent of global GDP, is a centerpiece of the Obama Asia Pacific strategy...

 

EWC

Differences / Synergies between Energy Efficiency Test Methods for Refrigerators in APEC Region and with the new IEC 62552, March 2016. This report investigates the different EE requirements and evaluation schemes in APEC economies and compares energy consumption calculation results for refrigerators in various APEC economies. Further, deep survey of test methods in APEC economies has been carried out and analysed, differences of test methods for refrigerators have been identified and key factors affecting the energy consumption have been screened out.

 

APEC

Clean and Efficient Use of Energy and Water Resources - Mapping the Energy-Water Nexus around the Pacific Rim, February 2016. In efforts to better inform the energy-water nexus dialogue, this paper builds on and extends the previously noted work in three important ways. The analysis addresses the 21-member economies of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation which are linked by shared geography and economy. The objective of the mapping is to quantify the energy-water nexus at a subnational level, pinpoint potential vulnerabilities, and identify opportunities for international collaboration.

 

APEC

APEC Workshop on Promoting the Development of Wind Energy, Phase 2 – Public Private Partnership for Wind Energy Development, January 2016. This summary report highlights findings from the workshop which sought to enhance understanding on the use of PPP to develop wind energy. It is also aimed at providing the opportunities for wind energy experts from APEC member economies, wind energy producers and investors (business sector) to share information and good practices on using PPP to remove the obstacles and facilitate the development of wind energy.

 

APEC

APEC Energy Working Group Success Stories, Published 2016. This booklet includes just a few of the many successful activities the EWG has undertaken since its first meeting in 1990. 2015 marks the group's 25th year and 50th meeting.

 

APEC

8th Conference on Good Regulatory Practice, February 2016. On 27 to 28 August 2015, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Sub-Committee on Standards and Conformance held the 8th Conference on Good Regulatory Practice in Cebu City, Philippines in the margins of the Senior Official Meetings (SOM) III. The Conference was led by the Philippines and co-sponsored by Australia, Malaysia, United States and Viet Nam. It gathered experts and participants from the governments and business to reinforce and strengthen the understanding of the elements of good regulatory practices (GRP) and the specific actions that economies have or are taking to implement actions identified by APEC Leaders in 2013.

 

APEC

APEC and the Human Development Agenda, March 2016. Human development is defined by the UNDP as a process of enlarging people’s choices: to lead a long and healthy life; to acquire knowledge; and to have access to resources needed to enjoy a decent standard of living. It focuses on the richness of human lives rather than the richness of economies. Human development is not a new approach: it has been integral to the work undertaken by international development organizations in the past three decades, but it is nevertheless a relatively new approach within APEC...

 

APEC

Workshop Report: Facilitating Trade through Updates on Food Safety Regulatory Standards of APEC Economies, February 2016. The workshop, central and most important activity of the APEC funded project CTI 18 2014A (SCSC), focused on understanding modernization in standards and responsibilities regarding food safety of APEC economies, raising awareness on these topics to facilitate food trade and improve food safety standards, and the manner in which APEC economies are dealing with emerging food safety challenges.

 

APEC

Developing ‘Smart Traveller’ Programmes to Facilitate International Travel in the APEC Region, December 2015. This report looks at ways and measures to develop and implement various modes of the Smart Traveller Programme taking into account the growing number of self-organized travels, travellers' safety and security and the possible difficulties that travellers may face.

 

APEC

The Philippine Economy in 2015 and Prospects for 2016, January-March 2016. PIDS Senior Research Fellow Roehlano Briones provides an assessment of the Philippine economy in 2015 and outlook for the current year in this first issue of the DRN for 2016. Amid global and regional challenges, such as the economic slowdown in big Asian economies and the sharp drop in oil prices, Briones underscores the country's resiliency as exemplified by sustained economic growth, improved capital formation, and sound fiscal balance. The lack of inclusiveness, however, remains a major issue that cannot be solved overnight. But our macroeconomic fundamentals have remained strong despite various risks and shocks...

 

PIDS

Philippine Institute for Development Studies - Policy Notes:  

PIDS

Assessment of the DSWD SEA-K Strategy, Published 2015. This study assesses the effectiveness of the strategy and the complementary interventions of the Sustainable Livelihood Program's Self-Employment Assistance Kaunlaran (SLP SEA-K). The SLP SEA-K uses a microcredit strategy to provide credit access to the poor, improve the ability of the group to borrow, and enable it to engage in income-generating activities...

 

PIDS

Journal of Bhutan Studies  

Bhutan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

  

 
 

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