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Volume 6 No. 1, January 2010





China Media Research, Volume 6 No. 1, January 2010

Yoshitaka Miike
An Anatomy of Eurocentrism in Communication Scholarship: The Role of Asiacentricity in De-Westernizing Theory and Research

This article problematizes the Eurocentric structure of communicative knowledge and advocates the legitimacy of Asiacentricity in Asian communication studies. The first section of the article re-articulates the nature and intersection of humanity, cultural particularities, and communication. The second section then addresses Eurocentrism as ideologies of totalization and trivialization. The third section clarifies the metatheoretical notion of Asiacentricity and argues for its intellectual necessity. The present article finally envisions five ways in which Asiacentricity de-Westernizes communication scholarship. Asiacentricity (1) generates theoretical knowledge that corresponds to Asian communication discourse, (2) focuses on the multiplicity and complexity of Asian communicative experience, (3) reflexively constitutes and critically transforms Asian communication discourse, (4) theorizes how universal aspects of humanity are expressed and understood in Asian cultural particularities, and (5) critiques Eurocentric biases in theory and research and helps Asian researchers overcome academic dependency.

Xiaodong Dai
Intersubjectivity and Interculturality: A Conceptual Link

Intersubjectivity reflects the condition of all human existence and constitutes the basis of social communication. Interculturality opens up new social space and constitutes the largest and most productive platform for intercultural dialogue. This paper attempts to define intersubjectivity and interculturality, interpret their implications and analyze how they interact with each other. Intersubjectivity refers to the interpersonal connection between individuals who are attuned to one another and construct social relations. The polysemic nature of intersubjectivity suggests that it not only embodies mutuality and consensuses but also disagreements and tensions. In like manner, interculturality refers to the complex connection between cultures whose members negotiate to reach agreements and achieve reciprocal interactions. It implies commonalities and similarities as well as differences, contrasts and conflicts. Intersubjectivity and interculturality share a similar structure, but have different operational mechanisms. The key difference lies in their frames of reference. With more exposure to other culture/cultures, communicators can broaden their horizons, reduce cultural distance and further transform intersubjectivity into interculturality. In establishing interculturality, they need to be open to other cultures and transcend monocultural ways of thinking.

Bingqi Feng and Han Li
In Search of a Western Counterpart of Ch'i: Eastern and Western Cognitive Frames in Interpreting Relevant Ch'i Terms

This study uses multidimensional scaling (MDS) to explore how Chinese and North American respondents differ in their perception of leadership spirit, or Ch'i, a concept that refers to energy flow, vital force, spirit, or dignity. Results show that three dimensions (Amenable Charisma, Magnetic Self-Assuredness, and Engaged Obstinacy) underlie perceptions of leadership Ch'i by the Chinese subjects, as contrasted with those underlying North American subjects (Respectful Amiability, Zealous Inflexibility, and Tentative Charisma). The differences in the dimensions reveal the diverse cognitive frames of Chinese and North Americans as they try to understand leadership spirit. Cross-cultural understanding between Eastern and Western thinking patterns, particularly as they relate to leadership qualities, is also discussed.

Ming-Yi Wu, Ph.D.
Gender and Cultural Influences on Expected Leadership Styles in the Taiwanese Public Relations Field: Transformational and Transactional Leadership Styles

In order to bring additional insight into transformational leadership in the international context, this study surveyed 104 public relations practitioners in Taiwan. The results suggest that the Taiwanese participants prefer both transformational and transactional leadership styles. Comparing male and female participants?answers, the results indicate that female public relations practitioners have higher scores on both transformational and transactional leadership styles. Cultural influences on the operationalization of transformational leadership are identified by the results of factor analysis.

Michael B. Hinner
Stereotyping and the Country-of-Origin Effect

Stereotyping and the country-of-origin effect share many characteristics. People in general have a need to reduce the world抯 complexity to a manageable level. This is often accomplished through simplification. Thus, people tend to reduce the complexity of other cultures to a few characteristics that are then transferred to individuals from that culture as well. This simplification is called stereotyping. Stereotypes can be positive or negative. In order to understand the formation of stereotypes better and to provide insights into how stereotypes might be overcome, the perceptual process can be helpful. In the world of business, international marketing is aware of a similar phenomenon when it comes to the associations and attributes consumers have of products from specific countries. These attributes can be either positive or negative. While new products can benefit from positive associations, overcoming negative attributes can be very difficult. That is why methods are described which could be helpful in overcoming a negative country-of-origin effects in marketing.

Morris A. Shapero
The Evolving Mindset of the Chinese Manager

To work effectively with Chinese, Western managers need to develop greater understanding of Chinese culture and values. Twenty-five Eckerd College students examined earlier field research of Hendrick Serrie on Chinese culture and its six principles (1999). Each group was assigned one principle and formulated questions and topics that formed the basis of discussions with managers in China. Upon completing the project, students completed papers on the assigned principle, either supporting or challenging it. Eckerd students found many principles from the research are still relevant, although certain principles are not as relevant because of changing values, especially among younger, well-educated workers.

Cooper S. Wakefield
Nike's Shanghai Advertising Dialectic: A Case Study

This paper gives a description and analysis of two recent Nike advertising campaigns in Shanghai, China. Located in conjoined visual space, the two ads form a dialectic that increases the effectiveness of both ads. The first and larger in scope of the two campaigns depicts NBA basketball stars striking gangster-rap style poses (dominating eye gaze, cocked head positions, frowns, challenging eyebrows, and generally imposing and intimidating body language) and employs a non-traditional ad slogan and style. A pilot study of responses was conducted among university students in order to gauge responses of locals to this set of ads.
The other ad, located across a major street in a more confined yet also more prominent space, features Chinese athletes in a conventionally styled Nike ad. The two advertisements, which seem to be in opposition, can be seen as working in tandem.
This paper analyzes the layers of meaning embedded in the advertisements and their locations in physical space. I discuss the nonverbal gestures, composition of the advertisements themselves, and the geosemiotics of the overall visual space. I rely on the work of Robert Goldman and Stephen Papson to decode the purpose of these advertisements, as well as to analyze the reactions to them.
These advertisements provide insight into cultural identity in Shanghai as perceived by one of the world's most prominent media producers. Like Nike's US strategy, which targets different groups with different types of advertisements, these advertisements clearly appeal to different types of Shanghai people. This paper not only explores the two advertisements themselves, but also the dissimilar cultural identities that the two contrasting advertisements may reflect and appeal to.

Charu Lata Singh, VIPS
New Media and Cultural Identity

This paper explores and examines the interplay of 'New media' and 'Cultural identity'. New media as the root cause of the processes of cultural change. The change which mainly results because of the technological advancements and innovations in new media. The paper tries to bring out the hidden nuances which due to these developments gives rise to a different culture, hence pose threat to the indigenous cultures, which stand at the crossroads to identify their own cultural identities amidst the assimilated and homogenized cultural forces. It focuses on virtual culture. The paper provides fresh point of views on moral panics and the commercial and imperial drives as underlying determiners of the whole phenomena. What it ultimately requires, is the new regulations framework pertaining to individualized global cultures in order to maintain their identities amidst the churning of these cultures in the sea of new media.

Gennadi Gevorgyan
Does Culture Matter? Using Accommodation, Framing, and Hofstede Theories to Predict Chinese Voters?Perceptions and Attitudes toward Culturally Oriented Online Political Advertising

This paper is an empirical undertaking that aims to explore the role culture plays in online political communication. With our general question "Does Culture Matter?" we investigate the persuasive effects of culturally oriented online political advertisements. In doing so, we lay the foundation for a framework that can be used to bridge the cultural gap through making online political information more appealing to ethnically diverse citizens. The results of the study reveal that culture has a significant role in the formation of Chinese American voters?attitudes toward political messages. In particular, advertisements with cultural appeals produce more favorable attitudes than those with neutral or culturally incongruent appeals. This pattern is especially visible among citizens with strong ethnic identities.

Tong Yu
Going Above and Beyond: A Multicultural Warrior An Interview with Dr. Bates Hoffer
Dr. Bates Hoffer is a renowned scholar who has done extensive research in intercultural communication, linguistics, and literature. Dr. Hoffer, former IAICS president and co-founder of ICS, continues to be active in scholarship, and in professional, university and community services. In this interview, Dr. Hoffer shares some of his intercultural experiences and offers valuable insights on doing social research.

Guozhen Wang and Peng Hwa Ang
The Principal-Agent Problem in Chinese State-owned Media


Source: China Media Research